A New Voyage to Carolina

John Lawson, first published 1709

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Project Gutenberg Etext Part 5 of 5
{How the Indians war.}
Lastly, the continual Wars these Savages maintain, one Nation against another,
which sometimes hold for some Ages, killing and making Captives,
till they become so weak thereby, that they are forced to make Peace
for want of Recruits, to supply their Wars; and the Difference of Languages,
that is found amongst these Heathens, seems altogether strange.
For it often appears, that every dozen Miles, you meet with an Indian Town,
that is quite different from the others you last parted withal;
and what a little supplies this Defect is, that the most powerful
Nation of these Savages scorns to treat or trade with any others
(of fewer Numbers and less Power) in any other Tongue but their own,
which serves for the Lingua of the Country, with which we travel and deal;
as for Example, we see that the Tuskeruro's are most numerous
in North-Carolina, therefore their Tongue is understood by some
in every Town of all the Indians near us.  And here I shall insert
a small Dictionary of every Tongue, though not Alphabetically digested.

    English.            Tuskeruro.          Pampticough.        Woccon.
One                 Unche               Weembot             Tonne
Two                 Necte               Neshinnauh          Num-perra  (rra?)
Three               Ohs-sah             Nish-wonner         Nam-mee
Four                Untoc               Yau-Ooner           Punnum-punne  (e?)
Five                Ouch-who            Umperren            Webtau
Six                 Houeyoc             Who-yeoc            Is-sto  (st?)
Seven               Chauh-noc           Top-po-osh          Nommis-sau
Eight               Nec-kara            Nau-haush-shoo      Nupsau
Nine                Wearah              Pach-ic-conk        Weihere
Ten                 Wartsauh            Cosh                Soone noponne
Eleven              Unche scauwhau                          Tonne hauk pea
Twelve              Nectec scaukhau                         Soone nomme
Twenty              Wartsau scauhau                         Winnop
Thirty              Ossa te wartsau
Hundred             Youch se
Thousand            Ki you se

Rum                 Oonaquod            Weesaccon           Yup-se
Blankets            Oorewa              Mattosh             Roo-iune
White               Ware-occa           Wop-poshaumosh      Waurraupa
Red                 Cotcoo-rea          Mish-cock  (ck?)    Yauta
Black or            Caw-hunshe          Mow-cottowosh       Yah-testea
Blue, idem
Gunpowder           Ou-ku               Pungue              Rooeyam
Shot                Cauna               Ar-rounser          Week
Axe                 Au-nuka             Tomma-hick          Tau-unta winnik
Knife               Oosocke nauh        Rig-cosq            Wee
Tobacco             Charho              Hooh-pau            Uu-coone
Shirt               Ough-tre's                              Tacca pitteneer
Shoes               Oo-ross-soo                             Wee-kessoo
Hat                 Trossa              Mottau-quahan       Intome-posswa
Fire                Utchar              Tinda               Yau
Water               Awoo                Umpe                Ejau
Coat                Ouswox              Taus-won            Rummissau
Awl or              Oose-waure          Moc-cose            Wonsh-shee
A Hoe               Wauche-wocnoc       Rosh-shocquon       Rooe-pau
Salt                Cheek-ha
Paint               Quaunt              Chuwon              Whooyeonne
Ronoak              Nauh-houreot        Mis-kis-'su         Rummaer
Peak                Chu-teche           Ronoak              Erroco
Gun                 Auk-noc             Gau hooptop         Wittape
Gun-Lock            Oo-teste            Gun tock Seike      Noonkosso
Flints              Ou-negh-ra          Hinds               Matt-teer
A Flap              Oukhaure            Rappatoc            Rhooeyau
Belt                Oona-teste          Maachone            Wee-kau
Scissors and        Cheh-ra                                 Toc-koor
A Kettle            Oowaiana                                Tooseawau
A Pot               Ocnock
Acorns              Kooawa                                  Roosomme
A Pine-Tree         Heigta              Oonossa             Hooheh
Englishman          Nickreruroh         Tosh shonte         Wintsohore
Indians             Unqua               Nuppin              Yauh-he
    English.            Tuskeruro.          Woccon.
A Horse             A hots              Yenwetoa
Swine               Watsquerre          Nommewarraupau
Moss                Auoona hau          Itto
Raw skin undrest    Ootahawa            Teep
Buckskin            Ocques              Rookau
Fawn-skin           Ottea               Wisto
Bear-skin           Oochehara           Ourka
Fox-skin            Che-chou            Hannatockore
Raccoon-skin        Roo-sotto           Auher
Squirrel-skin       Sost                Yehau
Wildcat-skin        Cauhauweana
Panther-skin        Caunerex            Wattau
Wolf                Squarrena           Tire kiro
Minx                Chac-kauene         Soccon
Otter               Chaunoc             Wetkes
A Mat               Ooyethne            Soppepepor
Basket              Ooyaura             Rookeppa
Feathers            Oosnooqua           Soppe
Drest-skin          Cotcoo              Rauhau
A Turkey            Coona               Yauta
A Duck              Sooeau              Welka
A King              Teethha             Roamore
Fat                 Ootsaure            Yendare
Soft                Utsauwanne          Roosomme
Hard or heavy       Waucots ne          Itte teraugh
A Rope              Utsera              Trauhe
A Possum            Che-ra
Day                 Ootauh-ne
A Pestel            Tic-caugh-ne        Miyau
A Mortar            Ootic caugh-ne      Yossoo
Stockings           Way haushe
A Creek             Wackena
A River             Ahunt wackena
A Man               Entequos
Old Man             Occooahawa
Young Man           Quottis
Woman               Con-noowa
Old Woman           Cusquerre           Yicau
Wife                Kateocca            Yecauau
A Child             Woccanookne
A Boy               Wariaugh
Infant              Utserosta
Ears                Ooethnat
Fishgig             Ootosne             Weetipsa
A Comb              Oonaquitchra        Sacketoome posswa
A Cake bak't        Ooneck
A Head              Ootaure             Poppe
Hair                Oowaara             Tumme
Brother             Caunotka            Yenrauhe
I                   Ee
Thou                Eets
There               Ka
Homine              Cotquerre           Roocauwa
Bread               Ootocnare           Ikettau
Broath              Ook-hoo
Corn                Oonaha              Cose
Pease               Saugh-he            Coosauk
A Bag               Uttaqua             Ekoocromon
Fish                Cunshe              Yacunne
A Louse             Cheecq;             Eppesyau
A Flea              Nauocq;
Potato's            Untone              Wauk
A Stick             Chinqua
Wood                Ouyunkgue           Yonne
House               Ounouse  (Oin?)     Ouke
A Cow               Ous-sarunt          Nappinjure
A Snake             Us-quauh-ne         Yau-hauk
A Rat               Rusquiane           Wittau
A Goose             Au-hoohaha          Auhaun
A Swan              Oorhast             Atter
Allegator           Utsererauh          Monwittetau
A Crab              Rouare cou          Wunneau
A Canoe             Ooshunnawa          Watt
A Box               Ooanoo              Yopoonitsa
A Bowl              Ortse               Cotsoe
A Spoon             Oughquere           Cotsau
A Path              Wauh-hauhne         Yauh
Sun or Moon         Heita               Wittapare
Wind                Hoonoch             Yuncor
A Star              Uttewiraratse       Wattapi untakeer
Rain                Untuch              Yawowa
Night               Oosottoo            Yantoha
A Rundlet           Oohunawa            Ynpyupseunne  (Yup?)
An Eel              Cuhn-na
A T---d             Utquera             Pulawa
A F---t             Uttena              Pautyau
A Cable             Utquichra
Small Ropes         Utsera utquichra
A Button            Tic-hah             Rummissauwoune
Breeches            Wahunshe            Rooeyaukitte
Stockings           Oowissera           Rooesoo possoo
Day                 Wauwoc-hook         Waukhaway
Mad                 Cosserunte          Rockcumne
Angry               Cotcheroore         Roocheha
Afraid              Werricauna          Reheshiwau
Smoak               Oo-teighne          Too-she
A Thief or Rogue    Katichhei
A Dog               Cheeth              Tauh-he
A Reed              Cauna               Weekwonne
Lightwood           Kakoo               Sek
To morrow           Jureha              Kittape
Now                 Kahunk
To day              Kawa
A little while ago  Kakoowa             Yauka
    English.                           Tuskeruro.               Woccon.
Yesterday                          Oousotto                 Yottoha
How many                           Ut-tewots                Tontarinte
How far                            Untateawa
Will you go along with me          Unta hah                 Quauke
Go you                             Its warko                Yuppa me
Give it me                         Cotshau                  Mothei
That's all                         Ut chat                  Cuttaune
A Cubit length                     Kihoosocca               Ishewounaup
Dead                               Whaharia                 Caure
A Gourd or Bottle                  Utchaawa                 Wattape
A lazy Fellow                      Wattattoo watse          Tontaunete
Englishman is thirsty              Oukwockaninniwock
I will sell you Goods very cheap   Wausthanocha             Nau hou hoore-ene
All the Indians are drunk          Connaugh jost twane      Nonnupper
Have you got any thing to eat      Utta-ana-wox             Noccoo Eraute
I am sick                          Connauwox                Waurepa
A Fish-Hook                        Oos-skinna
Don't lose it                      Oon est nonne it quost
A Tobacco-pipe                     Oosquaana                Intom
I remember it                      Oonutsauka               Aucummato
Let it alone                       Tnotsaurauweek  (Tout?)  Sauhau
Peaches                            Roo-ooe                  Yonne
Walnuts                            Rootau-ooe
Hickery Nuts                       Rootau                   Nimmia
A Jew's-Harp                       Ooratsa                  Wottiyau
I forget it                        Merrauka
Northwest-Wind                     Hothooka
Snow.                              Acaunque.                Wawawa.

{Indian Speech.}
To repeat more of this Indian Jargon, would be to trouble the Reader;
and as an Account how imperfect they are in their Moods and Tenses,
has been given by several already, I shall only add, that their
Languages or Tongues are so deficient, that you cannot suppose
the Indians ever could express themselves in such a Flight of Stile,
as Authors would have you believe.  They are so far from it,
that they are but just able to make one another understand readily
what they talk about.  As for the two Consonants `L' and `F',
I never knew them in any Indian Speech I have met withal;
yet I must tell you, that they have such a Way of abbreviating their Speech,
when in their great Councils and Debates, that the young Men do not understand
what they treat about, when they hear them argue.  It is wonderful,
what has occasion'd so many different Speeches as the Savages have.
{Tartarian Hurds.}  The three Nations I now mention'd,
do not live above ten Leagues distant, and two of them,
viz. the Tuskeruro's and the Woccon, are not two Leagues asunder;
yet their Speech differs in every Word thereof, except one,
which is Tsaure, Cockles, which is in both Tongues the same,
and nothing else.  Now this Difference of Speech causes
Jealousies and Fears amongst them, which bring Wars, wherein they destroy
one another; otherwise the Christians had not (in all Probability)
settled America so easily, as they have done, had these Tribes of Savages
united themselves into one People or general Interest, or were they so
but every hundred Miles.  In short, they are an odd sort of People
under the Circumstances they are at present, and have some such uncouth Ways
in their Management and Course of Living, that it seems a Miracle to us,
how they bring about their Designs, as they do, when their Ways
are commonly quite contrary to ours.  I believe, they are (as to this Life)
a very happy People; and were it not for the Feuds amongst themselves,
they would enjoy the happiest State (in this World) of all Mankind.
They met with Enemies when we came amongst them; for they are
no nearer Christianity now, than they were at the first Discovery,
to all Appearance.  {Indians learn of the Europeans.}
They have learnt several Vices of the Europeans, but not one Vertue,
as I know of.  Drunkenness was a Stranger, when we found them out,
and Swearing their Speech cannot express; yet those that speak English,
learn to swear the first thing they talk of.  It's true,
they have some Vertues and some Vices; but how the Christians
can bring these People into the Bosom of the Church, is a Proposal
that ought to be form'd and follow'd by the wisest Heads and best Christians.
After I have given one Remark or two farther, of some of their
strange Practices and Notions, I will give my Opinion, how I think,
in probability, it may be (if possible) effected, and so shall conclude
this Treatise of Carolina.

They are a very craving People, and if a Man give them any thing of a Present,
they think it obliges him to give them another; and so on,
till he has given them all he has; for they have no Bounds of Satisfaction
in that way; and if they give you any thing, it is to receive
twice the Value of it.  They have no Consideration that you will want
what you give them; for their way of Living is so contrary to ours,
that neither we nor they can fathom one anothers Designs and Methods.
They call Rum and Physick by one Name, which implies that Rum
make People sick, as when they have taken any poisonous Plant;
yet they cannot forbear Rum.  They make Offerings of their First-Fruits,
and the more serious sort of them throw into the Ashes, near the Fire,
the first Bit or Spoonful of every Meal they sit down to, which, they say,
is the same to them, as the pulling off our Hats, and talking,
when we go to Victuals, is to us.  They name the Months very agreeably,
as one is the Herring-Month, another the Strawberry-Month,
another the Mulberry-Month.  Others name them by the Trees that blossom;
especially, the Dogwood-Tree; or they say, we will return
when Turkey-Cocks gobble, that is in March and April.  The Age of the Moon
they understand, but know no different Name for Sun and Moon.
They can guess well at the time of the Day, by the Sun's Height.
Their Age they number by Winters, and say, such a Man or Woman
is so many Winters old.  They have no Sabbath, or Day of Rest.
Their Slaves are not over-burden'd with Work, and so not driven by Severity
to seek for that Relief.  Those that are acquainted with the English,
and speak the Tongue, know when Sunday comes; besides, the Indians have
a distinct Name for Christmas which they call Winnick Keshuse,
or the Englishmans Gods Moon.  There is one most abominable Custom
amongst them, which they call Husquenawing their young Men;
which I have not made any Mention of as yet, so will give you
an Account of it here.  You must know, that most commonly, once a Year,
or, at farthest, once in two Years, these People take up
so many of their young Men, as they think are able to undergo it,
and husquenaugh them, which is to make them obedient and respective
to their Superiors, and (as they say) is the same to them,
as it is to us to send our Children to School, to be taught
good Breeding and Letters.  This House of Correction is a large strong Cabin,
made on purpose for the Reception of the young Men and Boys,
that have not passed this Graduation already; and it is always at Christmas
that they husquenaugh their Youth, which is by bringing them
into this House, and keeping them dark all the time, where they
more than half-starve them.  Besides, they give them Pellitory-Bark,
and several intoxicating Plants, that make them go raving mad
as ever were any People in the World; and you may hear them make
the most dismal and hellish Cries, and Howlings, that ever
humane Creatures express'd; all which continues about five or six Weeks,
and the little Meat they eat, is the nastiest, loathsome stuff,
and mixt with all manner of Filth it's possible to get.
After the Time is expired, they are brought out of the Cabin,
which never is in the Town, but always a distance off, and guarded by
a Jaylor or two, who watch by Turns.  Now, when they first come out,
they are as poor as ever any Creatures were; for you must know several die
under this diabolical Purgation.  Moreover, they either really are,
or pretend to be dumb, and do not speak for several Days;
I think, twenty or thirty; and look so gastly, and are so chang'd,
that it's next to an Impossibility to know them again,
although you was never so well acquainted with them before.
I would fain have gone into the mad House, and have seen them
in their time of Purgatory, but the King would not suffer it,
because, he told me, they would do me, or any other white Man, an Injury,
that ventured in amongst them; so I desisted.  They play this Prank
with Girls as well as Boys, and I believe it a miserable Life they endure,
because I have known several of them run away, at that time, to avoid it.
Now, the Savages say, if it was not for this, they could never keep
their Youth in Subjection, besides that it hardens them ever after
to the Fatigues of War, Hunting, and all manner of Hardship,
which their way of living exposes them to.  Besides, they add,
that it carries off those infirm weak Bodies, that would have been only
a Burden and Disgrace to their Nation, and saves the Victuals and Cloathing
for better People, that would have been expended on such useless Creatures.
These Savages are described in their proper Colours, but by a very few;
for those that generally write Histories of this new World,
are such as Interest, Preferment, and Merchandize, drew thither,
and know no more of that People than I do of the Laplanders,
which is only by Hear-say.  And if we will make just Remarks,
how near such Relations generally approach Truth and Nicety,
we shall find very few of them worthy of Entertainment; and as for
the other part of the Volume, it is generally stufft with Invectives
against the Government they lived under, on which Stage is commonly acted
greater Barbarities, in Murdering worthy Mens Reputations,
than all the Savages in the new World are capable of equalizing,
or so much as imitating.

And since I hinted at a Regulation of the Savages, and to propose a way
to convert them to Christianity, I will first particularize
the several Nations of Indians that are our Neighbours,
and then proceed to what I promis'd.

Tuskeruro Indians are fifteen Towns, viz. Haruta, Waqui, Contah-nah,
Anna Ooka, Conauh-Kare Harooka, Una Nauhan, Kentanuska, Chunaneets,
Kenta, Eno, Naur-hegh-ne, Oonossoora, Tosneoc, Nonawharitse, Nursoorooka;
Fighting Men 1200.  Waccon, Towns 2, Yupwauremau, Tooptatmeer,
Fighting Men 120.  Machapunga, Town 1, Maramiskeet, Fighting Men 30.
Bear River, Town 1, Raudauqua-quank, Fighting Men 50.
Maherring Indians, Town 1, Maherring River, Fighting Men 50.
Chuwon Indians, Town 1, Bennets Creek, Fighting Men 15.
Paspatank Indians, Town 1, Paspatank River, Fighting Men 10.
Poteskeit, Town 1, North River, Fighting Men 30.  Nottaway Indians,
Town 1, Winoack Creek, Fighting Men 30.  Hatteras Town 1, Sand Banks,
Fighting Men 16.  Connamox Indians, Towns 2, Coranine, Raruta,
Fighting Men 25.  Neus Indians, Towns 2, Chattooka, Rouconk,
Fighting Men 15.  Pampticough Indians, Town 1, Island, Fighting Men 15.
Jaupim Indians, 6 People.  These five Nations of the Totero's, Sapona's,
Keiauwee's, Aconechos, and Schoccories, are lately come amongst us,
and may contain, in all, about 750 Men, Women and Children.  Total 4780.

Now, there appears to be one thousand six hundred and twelve
Fighting Men, of our Neighbouring Indians; and probably,
there are three Fifths of Women and Children, not including Old Men,
which amounts to four thousand and thirty Savages, besides the five Nations
lately come.  Now, as I before hinted, we will see what grounds there are
to make these People serviceable to us, and better themselves thereby.

On a fair Scheme, we must first allow these Savages what really
belongs to them, that is, what good Qualities, and natural Endowments,
they possess, whereby they being in their proper Colours,
the Event may be better guess'd at, and fathom'd.

First, they are as apt to learn any Handicraft, as any People
that the World affords; I will except none; as is seen
by their Canoes and Stauking Heads, which they make of themselves;
but to my purpose, the Indian Slaves in South Carolina, and elsewhere,
make my Argument good.

Secondly, we have no disciplin'd Men in Europe, but what have,
at one time or other, been branded with Mutining, and Murmuring against
their Chiefs.  These Savages are never found guilty of that great Crime
in a Soldier; I challenge all Mankind to tell me of one Instance of it;
besides, they never prove Traitors to their Native Country,
but rather chuse Death than partake and side with the Enemy.

They naturally possess the Righteous Man's Gift; they are Patient
under all Afflictions, and have a great many other Natural Vertues,
which I have slightly touch'd throughout the Account of these Savages.

They are really better to us, than we are to them; they always give us
Victuals at their Quarters, and take care we are arm'd against
Hunger and Thirst:  We do not so by them (generally speaking)
but let them walk by our Doors Hungry, and do not often relieve them.
We look upon them with Scorn and Disdain, and think them little better
than Beasts in Humane Shape, though if well examined, we shall find that,
for all our Religion and Education, we possess more Moral Deformities,
and Evils than these Savages do, or are acquainted withal.

We reckon them Slaves in Comparison to us, and Intruders,
as oft as they enter our Houses, or hunt near our Dwellings.
But if we will admit Reason to be our Guide, she will inform us,
that these Indians are the freest People in the World,
and so far from being Intruders upon us, that we have abandon'd
our own Native Soil, to drive them out, and possess theirs;
neither have we any true Balance, in Judging of these poor Heathens,
because we neither give Allowance for their Natural Disposition,
nor the Sylvian Education, and strange Customs, (uncouth to us)
they lie under and have ever been train'd up to; these are false Measures
for Christians to take, and indeed no Man can be reckon'd a Moralist only,
who will not make choice and use, of better Rules to walk and act by:
We trade with them, it's true, but to what End?  Not to shew them
the Steps of Vertue, and the Golden Rule, to do as we would be done by.
No, we have furnished them with the Vice of Drunkenness,
which is the open Road to all others, and daily cheat them
in every thing we sell, and esteem it a Gift of Christianity,
not to sell to them so cheap as we do to the Christians,
as we call our selves.  Pray let me know where is there to be found
one Sacred Command or Precept of our Master, that counsels us
to such Behaviour?  Besides, I believe it will not appear,
but that all the Wars, which we have had with the Savages,
were occasion'd by the unjust Dealings of the Christians towards them.
I can name more than a few, which my own Enquiry has given me
a right Understanding of, and I am afraid the remainder
(if they come to the test) will prove themselves Birds of the same Feather.

{Indians Aversion to Christianity.}
As we are in Christian Duty bound, so we must act and behave ourselves
to these Savages, if we either intend to be serviceable in converting them
to the Knowledge of the Gospel, or discharge the Duty which every Man,
within the Pale of the Christian Church, is bound to do.
Upon this Score, we ought to shew a Tenderness for these Heathens
under the weight of Infidelity; let us cherish their good Deeds,
and, with Mildness and Clemency, make them sensible and forwarn them
of their ill ones; let our Dealings be just to them in every Respect,
and shew no ill Example, whereby they may think we advise them
to practise that which we will not be conformable to ourselves:
Let them have cheap Penniworths (without Guile in our Trading with them)
and learn them the Mysteries of our Handicrafts, as well as our Religion,
otherwise we deal unjustly by them.  But it is highly necessary
to be brought in Practice, which is, to give Encouragement
to the ordinary People, and those of a lower Rank, that they might marry
with these Indians, and come into Plantations, and Houses,
where so many Acres of Land and some Gratuity of Money,
(out of a publick Stock) are given to the new-married Couple;
and that the Indians might have Encouragement to send their Children
Apprentices to proper Masters, that would be kind to them, and make them
Masters of a Trade, whereby they would be drawn to live amongst us,
and become Members of the same Ecclesiastical and Civil Government
we are under; then we should have great Advantages to make daily Conversions
amongst them, when they saw that we were kind and just to them
in all our Dealings.  Moreover, by the Indians Marrying with the Christians,
and coming into Plantations with their English Husbands, or Wives,
they would become Christians, and their Idolatry would be quite forgotten,
and, in all probability, a better Worship come in its Stead;
for were the Jews engrafted thus, and alienated from
the Worship and Conversation of Jews, their Abominations would vanish,
and be no more.

Thus we should be let into a better Understanding of the Indian Tongue,
by our new Converts; and the whole Body of these People
would arrive to the Knowledge of our Religion and Customs,
and become as one People with us.  By this Method also, we should have
a true Knowledge of all the Indians Skill in Medicine and Surgery;
they would inform us of the Situation of our Rivers, Lakes,
and Tracts of Land in the Lords Dominions, where by their Assistance,
greater Discoveries may be made than has been hitherto found out,
and by their Accompanying us in our Expeditions, we might civilize
a great many other Nations of the Savages, and daily add to our Strength
in Trade, and Interest; so that we might be sufficiently enabled to conquer,
or maintain our Ground, against all the Enemies to the Crown of England
in America, both Christian and Savage.

What Children we have of theirs, to learn Trades, &c. ought to be put
into those Hands that are Men of the best Lives and Characters,
and that are not only strict Observers of their Religion,
but also of a mild, winning and sweet Disposition, that these Indian Parents
may often go and see how well their Children are dealt with,
which would much win them to our Ways of Living, Mildness being a Vertue
the Indians are in love withal, for they do not practise
beating and correcting their Children, as we do.  A general Complaint is,
that it seems impossible to convert these People to Christianity,
as, at first sight, it does; and as for those in New Spain, they have
the Prayer of that Church in Latin by Rote, and know the external Behaviour at
Mass and Sermons; yet scarce any of them are steady and abide with constancy
in good Works, and the Duties of the Christian Church.  We find that
the Fuentes and several other of the noted Indian Families about Mexico,
and in other parts of New Spain, had given several large Gifts
to the Altar, and outwardly seem'd fond of their new Religion;
yet those that were the greatest Zealots outwards, on a strict Enquiry,
were found guilty of Idolatry and Witchcraft; and this seems to proceed from
their Cohabiting, which, as I have noted before, gives Opportunities of Cabals
to recal their ancient pristine Infidelity and Superstitions.  They never
argue against our Religion, but with all imaginable Indifference own,
that it is most proper for us that have been brought up in it.

In my opinion, it's better for Christians of a mean Fortune
to marry with the Civiliz'd Indians, than to suffer
the Hardships of four or five years Servitude, in which they meet
with Sickness and Seasonings amidst a Crowd of other Afflictions,
which the Tyranny of a bad Master lays upon such poor Souls, all which
those acquainted with our Tobacco Plantations are not Strangers to.

This seems to be a more reasonable Method of converting the Indians,
than to set up our Christian Banner in a Field of Blood, as the Spaniards
have done in New Spain, and baptize one hundred with the Sword
for one at the Font.  Whilst we make way for a Christian Colony
through a Field of Blood, and defraud, and make away with those
that one day may be wanted in this World, and in the next appear against us,
we make way for a more potent Christian Enemy to invade us hereafter,
of which we may repent, when too late.

                                  The Second
                                  Granted by
                               King CHARLES II.
                                    to the

Charles II. by the Grace of God, &c.  Whereas by Our Letters Patents,
bearing Date the Four and Twentieth Day of March, in the Fifteenth Year
of Our Reign, We were Graciously Pleas'd to Grant unto Our right Trusty,
and right Well-beloved Cousin and Counsellor Edward Earl of Clarendon,
our High Chancellor of England, Our right Trusty, and right entirely Beloved
Cousin and Counsellor, George Duke of Albemarle, Master of our Horse,
Our right Trusty and Well Beloved William, now Earl of Craven,
our right Trusty and well-beloved Counsellor, John Lord Berkeley,
our right Trusty, and well-beloved Counsellor, Anthony Lord Ashley,
Chancellor of our Exchequer, our right Trusty and Well-beloved Counsellor
Sir George Carterett Knight and Baronet, Vice-Chamberlain of our Houshold,
Our right Trusty and well-beloved, Sir John Colleton Knight and Baronet,
and Sir William Berkeley Knight, all that Province, Territory,
or Tract of Ground, called Carolina, situate, lying and being within
our Dominions of America, Extending from the North End of the Island,
called Luke Island, which lyeth in the Southern Virginia Seas,
and within six and thirty Degrees of the Northern Latitude;
and to the West, as far as the South Seas; and so respectively
as far as the River of Mathias, which bordereth upon the Coast of Florida,
and within One and Thirty Degrees of the Northern Latitude, and so West
in a direct Line, as far as the South Seas aforesaid.

Now, know Ye, that We, at the Humble Request of the said Grandees
in the aforesaid Letters Patents named, and as a farther Mark
of Our especial Favour towards them, We are Graciously Pleased
to Enlarge Our said Grant unto them, according to the Bounds and Limits
hereafter Specifyed, and in Favour to the Pious and Noble Purpose
of the said Edward Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle,
William Earl of Craven, John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley,
Sir George Carterett, Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley,
their Heirs and Assigns, all that Province, Territory, or Tract of Ground,
situate, lying, and being within Our Dominions of America aforesaid,
extending North and Westward, as far as the North End
of Carahtuke River, or Gulet, upon a streight Westerly Line,
to Wyonoake Creek, which lies within, or about the Degrees of Thirty Six,
and Thirty Minutes Northern Latitude, and so West, in a direct Line,
as far as the South Seas; and South and Westward, as far as
the Degrees of Twenty Nine Inclusive Northern Latitude,
and so West in a direct Line, as far as the South Seas;
together with all and singular Ports, Harbours, Bays, Rivers and Islets,
belonging unto the Province or Territory, aforesaid.  And also,
all the Soil, Lands, Fields, Woods, Mountains, Ferms, Lakes, Rivers,
Bays and Islets, situate, or being within the Bounds, or Limits,
last before mentioned; with the Fishing of all sorts of Fish,
Whales, Sturgeons, and all other Royal Fishes in the Sea, Bays,
Islets and Rivers, within the Premises, and the Fish therein taken;
together with the Royalty of the Sea, upon the Coast within
the Limits aforesaid.  And moreover, all Veins, Mines and Quarries,
as well discovered as not discover'd, of Gold, Silver,
Gems and Precious Stones, and all other whatsoever; be it of Stones, Metal,
or any other thing found, or to be found within the Province, Territory,
Islets and Limits aforesaid.

And furthermore, the Patronage and Advowsons of all the Churches and Chappels,
which as the Christian Religion shall encrease within the Province, Territory,
Isles and Limits aforesaid, shall happen hereafter to be erected;
together with Licence and Power to build and found Churches,
Chappels and Oratories in convenient and fit places, within the said
Bounds and Limits; and to cause them to be Dedicated and Consecrated,
according to the Ecclesiastical Laws of Our Kingdom of England;
together with all and singular, the like, and as ample Rights, Jurisdictions,
Privileges, Prerogatives, Royalties, Liberties, Immunities and Franchises,
of what Kind soever, within the Territory, Isles, Islets and Limits aforesaid.
To have, hold, use, exercise and enjoy the same, as amply, fully,
and in as ample Manner, as any Bishop of Durham in Our Kingdom of England,
ever heretofore had, held, used, or enjoyed, or of right ought, or could have,
use, or enjoy; and them the said Edward Earl of Clarendon,
George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven,
John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley, Sir George Carterett,
Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley, their Heirs and Assigns;
We do by these Presents, for Us, Our Heirs and Successors,
make, create and constitute the true and absolute Lords and Proprietors
of the said Province, or Territory, and of all other the Premises,
saving always the Faith, Allegiance and Sovereign Dominion due to Us,
our Heirs and Successors, for the same; to have, hold, possess and enjoy
the said Province, Territory, Islets, and all and singular,
other the Premises, to them the said Edward Earl of Clarendon,
George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven,
John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley, Sir George Carterett,
Sir John Colleton and Sir William Berkeley, their Heirs and Assigns,
for Ever, to be holden of Us, Our Heirs and Successors,
as of Our Mannor of East Greenwich, in Kent, in free and common Soccage,
and not in Capite, or by Knights Service, yielding and paying yearly
to Us, Our Heirs and Successors, for the same, the fourth Part
of all Goods and Silver Oar, which within the Limits hereby Granted,
shall from Time to Time, happen to be found, over and besides the Yearly Rent
of Twenty Marks and the fourth part of the Gold and Silver Oar,
in and by the said recited Letters Patents reserved and payable.

And that the Province, or Territory hereby granted and described,
may be dignifyed with as large Titles and Privileges, as any other Parts
of our Dominions and Territories in that Region; Know ye, That We,
of our farther Grace, certain Knowledge and meer Motion,
have thought fit to annex the same Tract of Ground and Territory,
unto the same Province of Carolina; and out of the Fulness
of our Royal Power and Prerogative, We do for Us, our Heirs and Successors,
annex and unite the same to the said Province of Carolina.  And forasmuch
as We have made and ordained the aforesaid Edward Earl of Clarendon,
George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven,
John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley, Sir George Carterett,
Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley, their Heirs and Assigns,
the true Lords and Proprietors of all the Province or Territory aforesaid;
Know ye therefore moreover, that We reposing especial Trust and Confidence
in their Fidelity, Wisdom, Justice and provident Circumspection for Us,
our Heirs and Successors, do grant full and absolute Power,
by virtue of these Presents, to them the said Edward Earl of Clarendon,
George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven,
John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley, Sir George Catterett,
Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley, and their Heirs and Assigns,
for the good and happy Government of the said whole Province or Territory,
full Power and Authority to erect, constitute, and make several Counties,
Baronies, and Colonies, of and within the said Provinces, Territories,
Lands and Hereditaments, in and by the said recited Letters Patents,
and these Presents, granted, or mentioned to be granted, as aforesaid,
with several and distinct Jurisdictions, Powers, Liberties and Privileges.
And also, to ordain, make and enact, and under their Seals,
to publish any Laws and Constitutions whatsoever, either appertaining to
the publick State of the said whole Province or Territory,
or of any distinct or particular County, Barony or Colony,
of or within the same, or to the private Utility of particular Persons,
according to their best Discretion, by and with the Advice,
Assent and Approbation of the Freemen of the said Province or Territory,
or of the Freemen of the County, Barony or Colony, for which
such Law or Constitution shall be made, or the greatest Part of them,
or of their Delegates or Deputies, whom for enacting of the said Laws,
when, and as often as need shall require, We will that the said
Edward Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle,
William Earl of Craven, John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley,
Sir George Carterett, Sir John Colleton and Sir William Berkeley,
and their Heirs or Assigns, shall from Time to Time, assemble in
such Manner and Form as to them shall seem best:  And the same Laws
duly to execute upon all People within the said Province or Territory,
County, Barony or Colony, and the Limits thereof, for the Time being,
which shall be constituted under the Power and Government of them,
or any of them, either sailing towards the said Province or Territory
of Carolina, or returning from thence towards England,
or any other of our, or foreign Dominions, by Imposition of Penalties,
Imprisonment, or any other Punishment:  Yea, if it shall be needful,
and the Quality of the Offence require it, by taking away
Member and Life, either by them, the said Edward Earl of Clarendon,
George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven,
John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley, Sir George Carterett,
Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley, and their Heirs,
or by them or their Deputies, Lieutenants, Judges, Justices, Magistrates,
or Officers whatsoever, as well within the said Province, as at Sea,
in such Manner and Form, as unto the said Edward Earl of Clarendon,
George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven,
John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley, Sir George Carterett,
Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley, and their Heirs,
shall seem most convenient:  Also, to remit, release, pardon and abolish,
whether before Judgment or after, all Crimes and Offences whatsoever,
against the said Laws; and to do all and every other Thing and Things,
which unto the compleat Establishment of Justice, unto Courts,
Sessions and Forms of Judicature, and Manners of proceedings therein,
do belong, altho' in these Presents, express Mention is not made thereof;
and by Judges, to him or them delegated to award, process, hold Please,
and determine in all the said Courts and Places of Judicature,
all Actions, Suits and Causes whatsoever, as well criminal as civil,
real, mixt, personal, or of any other Kind or Nature whatsoever:
Which Laws so as aforesaid, to be published, Our Pleasure is,
and We do enjoyn, require and command, shall be absolutely firm and available
in Law; and that all the Leige People of Us, our Heirs and Successors,
within the said Province or Territory, do observe and keep the same inviolably
in those Parts, so far as they concern them, under the Pains and Penalties
therein expressed; or to be expressed; provided nevertheless,
that the said Laws be consonant to Reason, and as near as may be conveniently,
agreeable to the Laws and Customs of this our Realm of England.

And because such Assemblies of Free-holders cannot be so suddenly called,
as there may be Occasion to require the same; We do therefore
by these Presents, give and grant unto the said Edward Earl of Clarendon,
George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven,
John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley, Sir George Carterett,
Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley, their Heirs and Assigns,
by themselves or their Magistrates in that Behalf, lawfully authorized,
full Power and Authority from Time to Time, to make and ordain
fit and wholsome Orders and Ordinances, within the Province
or Territory aforesaid, or any County, Barony or Province, of or within
the same, to be kept and observed, as well for the keeping of the Peace,
as for the better Government of the People there abiding, and to publish
the same to all to whom it may concern:  Which Ordinances we do,
by these Presents, streightly charge and command to be inviolably observed
within the same Province, Counties, Territories, Baronies, and Provinces,
under the Penalties therein expressed; so as such Ordinances
be reasonable and not repugnant or contrary, but as near as may be agreeable
to the Laws and Statutes of this our Kingdom of England;
and so as the same Ordinances do not extend to the binding,
charging or taking away of the Right or Interest of any Person or Persons,
in their freehold Goods, or Chattels, whatsoever.

And to the end the said Province or Territory, may be the more happily
encreased by the Multitude of People resorting thither, and may likewise be
the more strongly defended from the Incursions of Savages and other Enemies,
Pirates, and Robbers.

Therefore, We for Us, Our Heirs and Successors, do give and grant
by these Presents, Power, License and Liberty unto all the Leige People of Us,
our Heirs and Successors in our Kingdom of England, or elsewhere,
within any other our Dominions, Islands, Colonies or Plantations;
(excepting those who shall be especially forbidden) to transport
themselves and Families into the said Province or Territory,
with convenient Shipping, and fitting Provisions; and there
to settle themselves, dwell and inhabit, any Law, Act, Statute, Ordinance,
or other Thing to the contrary in any wise, notwithstanding.

And we will also, and of Our especial Grace, for Us, our Heirs and Successors,
do streightly enjoyn, ordain, constitute and demand, That the said
Province or Territory, shall be of our Allegiance; and that all and singular,
the Subjects and Leige People of Us, our Heirs and Successors, transported,
or to be transported into the said Province, and the Children of them,
and such as shall descend from them, there born, or hereafter to be born,
be, and shall be Denizens and Lieges of Us, our Heirs and Successors of this
our Kingdom of England, and be in all Things, held, treated and reputed
as the Liege faithful People of Us, our Heirs and Successors,
born within this our said Kingdom, or any other of our Dominions;
and may inherit, or otherwise purchase and receive, take, hold,
buy and possess any Lands, Tenements or Hereditaments, within the said Places,
and them may occupy, and enjoy, sell, alien and bequeath; as likewise,
all Liberties, Franchises and Privileges of this our Kingdom,
and of other our Dominions aforesaid, may freely and quietly have,
possess and enjoy, as our Liege People born within the same,
without the Molestation, Vexation, Trouble or Grievance of Us,
Our Heirs and Successors, any Act, Statute, Ordinance, or Provision
to the contrary, notwithstanding.

And furthermore, That Our Subjects of this Our said Kingdom of England,
and other our Dominions, may be the rather encouraged to undertake
this Expedition, with ready and chearful Minds; Know Ye, That We,
of Our especial Grace, certain Knowledge and meer Motion, do give and grant,
by virtue of these Presents, as well to the said Edward Earl of Clarendon,
George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven,
John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley, Sir George Carterett,
Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley, and their Heirs,
as unto all others as shall, from time to time, repair unto
the said Province or Territory, with a Purpose to inhabit there,
or to trade with the Natives thereof; Full Liberty and License
to lade and freight in every Port whatsoever, of Us, our Heirs and Successors;
and into the said Province of Carolina, by them, their Servants and Assigns,
to transport all and singular, their Goods, Wares and Merchandizes;
as likewise, all sort of Grain whatsoever, and any other Thing whatsoever,
necessary for their Food and Cloathing, not prohibited
by the Laws and Statutes of our Kingdom and Dominions, to be carried out
of the same, without any Lett or Molestation of Us, our Heirs and Successors,
or of any other our Officers or Ministers whatsoever; saving also to Us,
our Heirs and Successors, the Customs, and other Duties and Payments due for
the said Wares and Merchandizes, according to the several Rates of the Place
from whence the same shall be transported.

We will also, and by these Presents, for Us, our Heirs and Successors,
do give and grant License by this our Charter, unto the said
Edward Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle,
William Earl of Craven, John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley,
Sir George Carterett, Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley,
their Heirs and Assigns, and to all the Inhabitants and Dwellers
in the Province or Territory aforesaid, both present and to come,
full Power and Authority to import or unlade by themselves,
or their Servants, Factors or Assigns, all Merchandizes and Goods whatsoever,
that shall arise of the Fruits and Commodities of the said
Province or Territory, either by Land or Sea, into any the Ports of Us,
our Heirs and Successors, in our Kingdom of Engl. Scotl. or Ireland,
or otherwise, to dispose of the said Goods, in the said Ports.
And if need be, within one year next after the unlading,
to lade the said Merchandizes and Goods again in the same,
or other Ships; and to export the same into any other Countries,
either of our Dominions or foreign, being in Amity with Us,
our Heirs and Successors, so as they pay such Customs,
Subsidies and other Duties for the same to Us, our Heirs and Successors,
as the rest of our Subjects of this our Kingdom, for the Time being,
shall be bound to pay.  Beyond which We will not that the Inhabitants
of the said Province or Territory, shall be any ways charged.
Provided, nevertheless, and our Will and Pleasure is, and we have further,
for the Considerations aforesaid, of our special Grace,
certain Knowledge and meer Motion, given and granted, and by these Presents,
for Us, our Heirs and Successors, do give and grant unto
the said Edward Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle,
William Earl of Craven, John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley,
Sir George Carterett, Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley,
their Heirs and Assigns, full and free License, Liberty, Power and Authority,
at any Time or Times, from and after the Feast of St. Michael
the Arch-Angel, which shall be in the Year of our Lord Christ,
One Thousand, Six Hundred, Sixty and Seven; as well to import and bring into
any our Dominions from the said Province of Carolina, or any Part thereof,
the several Goods and Commodities herein after mentioned; That is to say,
Silks, Wines, Currants, Raisons, Capers, Wax, Almonds, Oil and Olives,
without paying or answering to Us, our Heirs and Successors,
any Custom, Impost, or other Duty, for, or in respect thereof,
for and during the Time and Space of Seven Years to commence and be accompted
from and after the first Importation of Four Tons of any the said Goods,
in any one Bottom Ship or Vessel, from the said Province or Territory,
into any of our Dominions; as also, to export and carry out of
any of our Dominions into the said Province or Territory, Custom-free,
all sorts of Tools, which shall be useful or necessary for the Planters there,
in the Accommodation and Improvement of the Premises, any thing
before in these Presents contained, or any Law, Act, Statute,
Prohibition, or other Matter or Thing, heretofore had, made,
enacted or provided, or hereafter to be had, made, enacted or provided,
in any wise notwithstanding.

And furthermore, of our more ample and especial Grace,
certain Knowledge and meer Motion, We do for Us, our Heirs and Successors,
grant unto the said Edward Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle,
William Earl of Craven, John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley,
Sir George Carterett, Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley,
their Heirs and Assigns, full and absolute Power and Authority to make,
erect and constitute within the said Province or Territory,
and the Isles and Islets aforesaid, such and so many Sea-Ports, Harbours,
Creeks and other Places for discharge and unlading of Goods and Merchandizes
out of Ships, Boats, and other Vessels, and for lading of them
in such and so many Places, as with such Jurisdictions,
Privileges and Franchises, unto the said Ports belonging,
as to them shall seem most expedient; And that all and singular,
the Ships, Boats and other Vessels, which shall come for Merchandizes,
and trade into the said Province or Territory, or shall depart
out of the same, shall be laden and unladen at such Ports only,
as shall be erected and constituted by the said Edward Earl of Clarendon,
George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven,
John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley, Sir George Carterett,
Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley, their Heirs and Assigns,
and not elsewhere, any Use, Custom, or any thing to the contrary
in any wise notwithstanding.

And we do furthermore will, appoint and ordain, and by these Presents,
for Us, our Heirs and Successors, do grant unto the said
Edward Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle,
William Earl of Craven, John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley,
Sir George Carterett, Sir John Colleton and Sir William Berkeley,
their Heirs and Assigns, That they the said Edward Earl of Clarendon,
George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven,
John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley, Sir George Carterett,
Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley, their Heirs and Assigns,
may from Time to Time, for ever, have and enjoy the Customs and Subsidies in
the Ports, Harbours, Creeks and other Places, within the Province aforesaid,
payable for the Goods, Merchandizes and Wares there laded,
or to be laded or unladed, the said Customs to be reasonably assessed
upon any Occasion by themselves, and by and with the Consent
of the free People, or the greater Part of them, as aforesaid;
to whom We give Power by these Presents, for Us, our Heirs and Successors,
upon just Cause and in a due Proportion to assess and impose the same.

And further, of our especial Grace, certain Knowledge and meer Motion,
we have given, granted and confirmed, and by these Presents,
for Us, our Heirs and Successors, do give, grant and confirm
unto the said Edward Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle,
William Earl of Craven, John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley,
Sir George Carterett, Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley,
their Heirs and Assigns, full and absolute Power, License and Authority,
that they the said Edward Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle,
William Earl of Craven, John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley,
Sir George Carterett, Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley,
their Heirs and Assigns, from Time to Time, hereafter for ever,
at his and their Will and Pleasure, may assign, alien, grant,
demise or enfeoff the Premises or any Part or Parcel thereof to him or them,
that shall be willing to purchase the same; and to such Person and Persons,
as they shall think fit, to have, and to hold to them the said
Person or Persons, their Heirs and Assigns, in Fee simple or in Fee Tayle,
or for the Term of Life or Lives, or Years to be held of them,
the said Edward Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle,
William Earl of Craven, John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley,
Sir George Carterett, Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley,
their Heirs and Assigns, by such Rents, Services and Customs,
as shall seem fit to them the said Edward Earl of Clarendon,
George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven,
John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley, Sir George Carterett,
Sir John Colleton, and William Berkeley, their Heirs and Assigns,
and not of Us, our Heirs and Successors:  And to the same Person and Persons,
and to all and every of them, We do give and grant by these Presents,
for Us, our Heirs and Successors, License, Authority and Power,
that such Person or Persons, may have and take the Premises,
or any Parcel thereof, of the said Edward Earl of Clarendon,
George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven,
John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley, Sir George Carterett,
Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley, their Heirs and Assigns,
and the same to hold to themselves, their Heirs or Assigns,
in what Estate of Inheritance soever, in Fee simple, or in Fee Tayle,
or otherwise, as to them the said Edward Earl of Clarendon,
George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven,
John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley, Sir George Carterett,
Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley, their Heirs and Assigns,
shall seem expedient; The Statute in the Parliament of Edward,
Son of King Henry, heretofore King of England, our Predecessor,
commonly called, The Statute of Quia Emptores Terrar; or any other Statute,
Act, Ordinance, Use, Law, Custom, any other Matter, Cause or Thing
heretofore published or provided to the contrary, in any wise notwithstanding.

And because many Persons born and inhabiting in the said Province
for their Deserts and Services may expect, and be capable of
Marks of Honour and Favour, which, in respect of the great Distance
cannot conveniently be conferred by Us; our Will and Pleasure therefore is,
and We do by these Presents, give and grant unto the said
Edward Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle,
William Lord Craven, John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley,
Sir George Carterett, Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley,
their Heirs and Assigns, full Power and Authority to give and confer unto,
and upon such of the Inhabitants of the said Province, or Territory,
as they shall think, do, or shall merit the same, such Marks of Favour,
and Titles of Honour, as they shall think fit, so as their Titles of Honours
be not the same as are enjoyed by, or conferred upon any of the Subjects
of this Our Kingdom of England.

And further also, We do by these Presents, for Us, Our Heirs and Successors,
give and Grant, License to them the Edward Earl of Clarendon,
George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven,
John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley, Sir George Carterett,
Sir John Colleton and Sir William Berkeley, their Heirs and Assigns,
full Power, Liberty and License, to Erect, Raise and Build
within the said Province and Places aforesaid, or any Part or Parts thereof,
such and so many Forts, Fortresses, Castles, Cities, Boroughs,
Towns, Villages and other Fortifications whatsoever;
and the same or any of them to Fortify and Furnish with Ordnance,
Powder, Shot, Armour and all other Weapons, Ammunition and Habiliments of War,
both Defensive and Offensive, as shall be thought fit and convenient for
the Safety and Welfare of the said Province, and Places, or any Part thereof;
and the same, or any of them, from Time to Time, as Occasion shall require,
to Dismantle, Disfurnish, Demolish and Pull down; And also to Place,
Constitute and Appoint in, or over all, or any of the said Castles,
Forts, Fortifications, Cities, Towns and Places aforesaid,
Governours, Deputy Governours, Magistrates, Sheriffs and other Officers,
Civil and Military, as to them shall seem meet; and to the said Cities,
Boroughs, Towns, Villages, or any other Place or Places, within the said
Province or Territory, to Grant Letters or Charters of Incorporation,
with all Liberties, Franchises and Privileges requisite, or usual,
to, or within this our Kingdom of England granted, or belonging;
And in the same Cities, Boroughs, Towns and other Places, to Constitute,
Erect and Appoint such, and so many Markets, Marts and Fairs
as shall in that Behalf be thought fit and necessary; And further also,
to Erect and Make in the Province or Territory aforesaid, or any Part thereof,
so many Mannors with such Signories as to them shall seem meet and convenient,
and in every of the same Mannors to have and to hold a Court-Baron,
with all Things whatsoever, which to a Court-Baron do belong,
and to have and to hold Views of Frank Pledge, and Court-Leet,
for the Conservation of the Peace, and better Government of those Parts,
with such Limits, Jurisdiction and Precincts, as by the said
Edward Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle,
William Earl of Craven, John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley,
Sir George Carterett, Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley,
or their Heirs, shall be appointed for that purpose, with all
things whatsoever, which to a Court-Leet, or view of Franck Pledge, do belong;
the same Courts to be holden by Stewards, to be Deputed and Authorized
by the said Edward Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle,
William Earl of Craven, John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley,
Sir George Carterett, Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley,
or their Heirs, by the Lords of the Mannors and Leets, for the Time being,
when the same shall be Erected.

And because that in so remote a Country, and Situate among
so many Barbarous Nations, the Invasions as well of Savages as other Enemies,
Pirates, and Robbers may probably be feared; Therefore We have Given,
and for Us, Our Heirs and Successors do give Power by these Presents,
unto the said Edward Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle,
William Earl of Craven, John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley,
Sir George Carterett, Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley,
their Heirs or Assigns by themselves, or their Captains, or their Officers
to Levy, Muster and Train up all sorts of Men, of what Condition soever,
or wheresoever Born, whether in the said Province, or elsewhere,
for the Time being; and to make War and pursue the Enemies aforesaid,
as well by Sea, as by Land; yea, even without the Limits of the said Province,
and by God's Assistance, to Vanquish and Take them, and being Taken,
to put them to Death by the Law of War, and to save them at their Pleasure;
And to do all and every other thing, which to the Charge and Office
of a Captain General of an Army belongeth, or hath accustomed to belong,
as fully and freely as any Captain General of an Army hath had the same.

Also, Our Will and Pleasure is, and by this Our Charter,
We do give and grant unto the said Edward Earl of Clarendon,
George Duke of Albemarle, William Lord Craven, John Lord Berkeley,
Anthony Lord Ashley, Sir George Carterett, Sir John Colleton,
and Sir William Berkeley, their Heirs and Assigns, full Power,
Liberty and Authority, in Case of Rebellion, Tumult, or Sedition
(if any should happen, which God forbid) either upon the Land within
the Province aforesaid, or upon the main Sea, in making a Voyage thither,
or returning from thence, by him and themselves, their Captains,
Deputies or Officers, to be authorized under his or their Seals,
for that purpose:  To whom also for Us, our Heirs and Successors,
We do give and grant by these Presents, full Power and Authority
to exercise Martial Law against mutinous and seditious Persons of those Parts;
such as shall refuse to submit themselves to their Government,
or shall refuse to serve in the Wars, or shall fly to the Enemy,
or forsake their Colours or Ensigns, or be Loiterers or Stragglers,
or otherwise howsoever offending against Law, Custom, or Military Discipline,
as freely, and in as ample Manner and Form as any Captain General of an Army,
by virtue of his Office, might, or hath accustomed to use the same.

And Our further Pleasure is, and by these Presents, for Us, our Heirs
and Successors, We do grant unto the said Edward Earl of Clarendon,
George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven,
John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley, Sir George Carterett,
Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley, their Heirs and Assigns,
and to the Tenants and Inhabitants of the said Province, or Territory,
both present and to come, and to every of them, that the said Province,
or Territory, and the Tenants and Inhabitants thereof,
shall not from henceforth, be held or reputed any Member,
or Part of any Colony whatsoever, in America or elsewhere,
now transported or made, or hereafter to be transported or made;
nor shall be depending on, or subject to their Government in any Thing,
but be absolutely separated and divided from the same:  And our Pleasure is,
by these Presents, That they may be separated, and that they be subject
immediately to our Crown of England, as depending thereof for ever.
And that the Inhabitants of the said Province or Territory, or any of them,
shall at any Time hereafter, be compelled or compellible,
or be any ways subject, or liable to appear or answer to any Matter, Suit,
Cause, or Plaint whatsoever, out of the Province or Territory aforesaid,
in any other of our Islands, Colonies or Dominions in America, or elsewhere,
other than in our Realm of England and Dominion of Wales.

And because it may happen, That some of the People and Inhabitants
of the said Province, cannot in their private Opinions conform
to the Publick Exercise of Religion according to the Liturgy,
Forms and Ceremonies of the Church of England, or take or subscribe
the Oaths and Articles made and established in that Behalf:
And for that the same, by reason of the remote Distances of those Places,
will, as we hope, be no Breach of the Unity, and Conformity,
Established in this Nation; Our Will and Pleasure therefore is,
and We do by these Presents for Us, Our Heirs, and Successors,
Give and Grant unto the said Edward Earl of Clarendon,
George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven,
John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley, Sir George Carterett,
Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley, their Heirs and Assigns,
full and free Licence, Liberty and Authority, by such Ways and Means
as they shall think fit, To Give and Grant unto such Person and Persons,
Inhabiting, and being within the said Province or Territory,
hereby or by the said recited Letters Patents, mentioned to be granted
as aforesaid, or any Part thereof, such Indulgencies and Dispensations,
in that Behalf, for, and during such Time and Times, and with such
Limitations and Restrictions, as they the said Edward Earl of Clarendon,
George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven,
John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley, Sir George Carterett,
Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley, their Heirs,
or Assigns, shall in their Discretion think fit and reasonable.
And that no Person or Persons, unto whom such Liberty shall be given,
shall be any way molested, punished, disquieted, or called in question for
any Differences in Opinion or Practice, in Matters of Religious Concernment,
who do not actually disturb the civil Peace of the Province, County or Colony,
that they shall make their abode in.  But all and every such
Person and Persons, may from Time to Time, and at all Times,
freely and quietly have and enjoy his and their Judgment and Consciences,
in Matters of Religion, throughout all the said Province, or Colony,
they behaving themselves peaceably, and not using this Liberty
to Licentiousness, nor to the Civil Injury or outward Disturbance of others.
Any Law, Statute or Clause contained, or to be contained,
Usage or Customs of our Realm of England to the contrary hereof
in any wise, notwithstanding.

And in Case it shall happen, that any Doubts or Questions should arise
concerning the True Sense and Understanding of any Word, Clause, or Sentence,
contained in this Our present Charter, We Will, Ordain, and Command,
that at all Times, and in all Things, such Interpretations be made thereof,
and allow'd in all and every of Our Courts whatsoever,
as Lawfully may be Adjudged most Advantageous and Favourable
to the said Edward Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle,
William Earl of Craven, John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley,
Sir George Carterett, Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley,
their Heirs and Assigns, although Express Mention, &c.

Witness our Self at Westminster, the Thirtieth Day of June,
in the Seventeenth Year of our Reign.

                                   Per Ipsum Regem.

                                    of the

As to the Government of Carolina, the Laws of England are there in Force;
yet the Lords-Proprietors, by their Deputies, have Power,
with the Consent of the Inhabitants, to make By-Laws for the better Government
of the said Province; so that no Law can be made, or Money rais'd,
unless the Inhabitants, or their Representatives, consent thereto:
One Law which they have in South-Carolina deserves particular Mention,
which is, their Method of chusing Juries, it being done by making
a considerable Number of Paper-Billets, on which are written
the Names of as many of the most substantial Freeholders.
These Billets are put into a Hat, out of which Twenty-four are chosen
by the next Child that appears.  Then, out of those Twenty-four,
Twelve are chosen at the next Court, after the same manner;
which is an infallible way to prevent all Manner of Fraud.

North and South-Carolina Settlements are distant from one another
some hundreds of Miles; so that Necessity compels each Colony
to keep to themselves, a Governour, Council and Assembly.
The Governor represents the Lord-Palatine; the rest of the Counsellors
are the Lord-Deputies; who, of themselves, make a Palatines Court,
and a Court of Chancery; wherein they pass several Orders of Council,
much of the Nature of the Prince's Proclamation; which continues
no longer in Force, than the next Assembly.  Likewise, they grant
several sorts of Commissions, Warrants, &c. yet Military Commissions
lie wholly in the Governor's Power; but Making of War or Peace, in all,
or the Majority of the Lords-Deputies; by whom (the Governor being one)
it is determin'd, and by whose Commissions all other Magistrates act.
On these Heads they have settled, and maintain an admirable
Constitution of Government, for the lasting Peace, Security, and Well-being
of all the Inhabitants.  The way of any ones taking up his Land in Carolina,
due to him either by Purchasing it of the Lords Proprietors here in England,
who keep their Board at Craven-House in Drury-Lane, London,
the first Thursday in every Month; or if purchas'd in Carolina,
is after this manner:  He first looks out for a Place to his Mind,
that is not already possess'd by any other; then applies himself
to the Governor and Lords Proprietors Deputies, and shews what Right he hath
to such a Tract of Land, either by Purchase of the Lords in England,
or by an Entry in the Surveyor-General's Office, in order
to purchase of the Governor and Lords Deputies there in Carolina,
who thereupon issue out their Warrant-Land as is due to him.
Who making Certificate, that he had measured out so much Land and the Bounds,
a Deed is prepared of Course, by the Secretary, which is sign'd
by the Governor and the Lords Proprietors Deputies, and the Proprietors Seal
affix'd to it, and register'd in the Secretaries Office,
which is a good Coveyance in Law of the Land therein mention'd,
to the Party and his Heirs for ever.

Thus have I given you as large and exact an Account of Carolina,
as the Discovery of so few Years (in this great and extensive Land)
would permit.  Which flourishing Country will, doubtless, in time,
increase the Number of its Productions, and afford us plentifully
those Necessaries and rich Commodities, which the Streights,
Turky and other Countries supply us withal at present,
and not seldom in their own Shipping; whereas, were those Merchandizes
the Produce of an English Plantation, and brought us home
by our own Hands and Bottoms, of what Advantage such an Improvement would be
to the Crown of Great-Britain, and the People in general,
I leave to Men of Reason and Experience to judge.  I do intend (if God permit)
by future Voyages (after my Arrival in Carolina) to pierce into
the Body of the Continent, and what Discoveries and Observations
I shall, at any time hereafter, make, will be communicated
to my Correspondents in England, to be publish'd, having furnish'd myself
with Instruments and other Necessaries for such Voyages.

For the better Understanding of this Country, I have already drawn
a very large and exact Map thereof, as far as any Discoveries
have been yet made, either by others or my self, and have spared
neither Cost nor Pains, to procure the most correct Maps and Journals thereof,
that are extant in Print, or in Manuscript.  This Map containing
nine Sheets of Imperial Paper, and now fit for engraving,
begins at Cape Henry in Virginia, 37 deg. N. Lat. and contains
all the Coasts of Carolina, or Florida, with the Bahama Islands,
great Part of the Bay of Mexico, and the Island of Cuba, to the Southward,
and several Degrees to the Westward of the Messiasippi River,
with all the Indian Nations and Villages, and their Numbers,
which of them are subject to Carolina, and trade with their People,
what Places are convenient Factories and Forts, to increase and secure
our Trade on the Messiasippi, and what Forts and Factories
the French and Spaniards have gain'd in those Latitudes,
especially on the great River and the Neighbouring Streams; all which
they illegally possess, since the very Mouth of the River Messiasippi
is in the King of England's Grant to the Lords Proprietors of Carolina,
it falling something to the Northward of 29 Degr. North Lat.
whose Claim and Right I question not, but a Peace will adjust, and restore,
which every Englishman is bound in Duty and Interest, to wish for;
if we consider how advantageously they have seated themselves,
whereby to disturb the Peace and Interest of all the English Plantations
on the Continent of America.




[Original Advertisement, included for historical context.]

Lately publish'd, in the Collections for December, January, February,
and March,

The Discovery and Conquest of the Molucco and Philippine Islands;
containing their History, Ancient and Modern, Natural and Political:
Their Description, Product, Religion, Government, Laws, Languages,
Customs, Manners, Habits, Shape, and Inclinations of the Natives.
With an Account of many other adjacent Islands, and several remarkable Voyages
through the Streights of Magellan, and in other Parts.  Written in Spanish
by Bartholomew Leonardo Argensola, Chaplain to the Empress,
and Rector of Villahermosa.  Now translated into English;
and illustrated with a Map and several Cuts.

[End of Original Advertisement.]

Notes to etext:

This book was originally published in London in 1709.
This text follows the original spellings, which are somewhat irregular,
though still quite readable.

A footnote from William Gilmore Simms' "Life of Francis Marion" (online):

  Lawson's "Journal of a Thousand Miles' Travel among the Indians,
  from South to North Carolina", is a work equally rare and interesting.
  This unfortunate man fell a victim to his official duties.
  He was confounded, by the savages, with the government which he represented,
  and sacrificed to their fury, under the charge of depriving them,
  by his surveys, of their land.  He was made captive
  with the Baron de Graffenreid.  The latter escaped,
  but Lawson was subjected to the fire-torture.

Simms, however, was never a stickler for details.  Other accounts differ
as to John Lawson's exact fate, and no one is sure how he died.

Mike Lawson, (MIKE_LAWSON@intertec.com, http://www.mixbooks.com),
a direct descendant of the author, contacted me while I was working
on putting this book online, and sent me some interesting information,
which is summarized below.  Baron de Graffenreid = Degraffenreid, etc.

From about 1705 to 1708 John Lawson had lived in Bath Town, NC,
where his primary interests were his orchards and vines.
When he went to England to have his book published, he was "called upon
by the Lord Proprietors to assist DeGraffenreid" who was trying to settle
a colony of Palatines in North Carolina.  Franz Louis Michel,
of Bern, Switzerland, (Lawson refers to him as Francis-Louis Mitchell)
had come to America in 1702, and discovered evidence of silver
in the mountains.  He returned to Europe to start a company
to found a colony in America, and met Degraffenreid, who had similar plans,
and had already contracted with the city of Bern to remove some Anabaptists
to America -- they formed a partnership, and intended to search for silver.
After the course of events which included John Lawson's death
and a massacre of these colonists, they had a falling out,
and that plan never came off.

According to De Graffenreid, some days before the New Bern massacre
John Lawson proposed that they go up the Neuse River,
where there were plenty of wild grapes.  They were assured
"that no savages lived on that branch of the river.  But to feel safer
we took two Indians to guide, which we knew well, with two negroes to row."
Two days out, near the village of Coram, they were overtaken
by a large number of Tuscaroras, and captured.

There was a trial of sorts, where their intentions were examined,
and Mr. Lawson was charged with being too severe, and for selling their land.
After a lengthy debate, it was decided that they should be released
the next day, but the following morning, one Cor Tom reproached Mr. Lawson,
and they quarrelled.  "I made every effort to get Lawson to quit quarrelling.
I did not succeed.  All at once three or four Indians fell upon us
in a furious manner. . . .  They took our hats and periwigs and threw them
into the fire, and a council of war being held we were immediately
sentenced to death."  One of the Indians, a relation of King Taylor,
from whom De Graffenreid had bought the land for New Bern,
appealed in his behalf.  "The Indians whispered in my ear
that I had nothing to fear, but that Lawson would die, what affected me much.
They also liberated my negro, but I never saw him since. . . .
As to his death, I know nothing.  Some said he was hung,
some said he was burnt.  The Indians kept that execution very secret."

The Tuscaroras then informed De Graffenreid that they were going to war,
but would not harm Chattooka (New Bern), but that the people of New Bern
ought to stay in the town -- unfortunately, there was no way to inform
the people of New Bern.  Several days later prisoners were brought back,
and De Graffenreid tells of recognizing some of them as his tenants,
including a boy who reported that his whole family had been killed.
After six weeks imprisonment at Catechna, he was released,
and returned to New Bern, where the people were surprised to find him alive.

(The relevant passages from De Graffenreid's journal were printed
in the North Carolina Booklet, Vol. I, No. 2, June 10, 1901,
`Colonial New Bern', by Mrs. Sara Beaumont Kennedy, pp. 7-13.
Issued by the North Carolina Society of the Daughters of the Revolution.
Raleigh:  Capital Printing Company, 1901.)

Due to the age of this book, there are a number of nonstandard spellings,
and the font used in the original, with the s's much like f's,
has surely led to an error or two in the transcription, though every effort
was made to minimize this factor.  The standards of printing at the time
were also somewhat low, and combine all this with those instances
where Indian names and words are given, and some of the material
is doubtless inaccurate -- though Lawson's comments on zoology
should make that quite clear.  Nonetheless, this account remains
one of our best sources for information on the Indians of North Carolina
in and about the year 1700.

Sidenotes, throughout, are presented in squiggly brackets.  {As here.}
Where the sidenote precedes a paragraph, it is given on a separate line.


(p. 11)
[ and become Cripples all ther Life-time; ]
  changed to:
[ and become Cripples all their Life-time; ]

(p. 13)
[ to satisfy the Apppetite of the Rich alone. ]
  changed to:
[ to satisfy the Appetite of the Rich alone. ]

(p. 14)
[ so we got that Night to Mons. Gallian's the elder, ]
  changed to:
[ so we got that Night to Mons. Galliar's the elder, ]
  As the difference between "n" and "r" is significant,
  other evidence (William Dobein James) suggests the real name was Gaillard,
  and "Mons. Galliar's, jun'," is mentioned on the next page.

  (In giving the background of Marion, in his "Life of Gen. Francis Marion",
  Judge William Dobein James quotes from "A New Voyage to Carolina",
  and in his footnotes gives some additional commentary on the area
  in relation to Lawson's description.  This text is online.)

(p. 19)
[ which was s Parrade of all Nations, ]
  changed to:
[ which was a Parrade of all Nations, ]
[ most Natious of the known World. ]
  changed to:
[ most Nations of the known World. ]

(p. 21)
[ about it is hung Gourds Feathers, and other such like Trophies, ]
  changed to:
[ about it is hung Gourds, Feathers, and other such like Trophies, ]

[ for tho' this most bears a Seed in a Sort of a small Cod, ]
  changed to:
[ for tho' this Moss bears a Seed in a Sort of a small Cod, ]

(p. 44)
[ the Sinnagers, or Troquois. ]
  changed to:
[ the Sinnagers, or Iroquois. ]

(p. 47-48)
[ At that, time these Toteros Saponas, and the Keyauwees, ]
  changed to:
[ At that time these Toteros, Saponas, and the Keyauwees, ]

(p. 73)
[ on the 6th of February, 166(3/4) came to an Anchor ]
  changed to:
[ on the 6th of February, 1664, came to an Anchor ]

(p. 75)
[ to more Certainty, and greater Anvantage; whereby they might arrive ]
  changed to:
[ to more Certainty, and greater Advantage; whereby they might arrive ]

(p. 80)
[ to leave the more Northerly Platations, and sit down under ]
  changed to:
[ to leave the more Northerly Plantations, and sit down under ]

(p. 87)
[ In the Year 1707. we had the severest Winter ]
  changed to:
[ In the Year 1707, we had the severest Winter ]

(p. 91)
[ and dry it in the Sun. to keep for Use. ]
  changed to:
[ and dry it in the Sun to keep for Use. ]

(p. 111)
[ {Plum.} ]
  inserted before:
[Damson, Damazeen, and a large round black Plum are all I have met withal ]
  (This follows the paragraph on Apricots ["Apricock"],
  and the absence of this or similar side-note seems to be accidental.)

(p. 118)
[ This Beast is the greatast Enemy to the Planter, ]
  changed to:
[ This Beast is the greatest Enemy to the Planter, ]

(p. 120)
[ There Fore-Feet are open, like a Dog's; ]
  changed to:
[ Their Fore-Feet are open, like a Dog's; ]

(p. 120)
[ great Gust in September. 1700. brought ]
  changed to:
[ great Gust in September, 1700. brought ]

(p. 134)
[ and make Euquiries therein, when, at least, ]
  changed to:
[ and make Enquiries therein, when, at least, ]
  (the ol' upside-down "n" error.)

(p. 136)
  (from the list of Water Fowl)
[ Whifflers. ]
  changed to:
[ Whistlers. ]
  (in accordance with the text about them that follows.)

(p. 137)
  (from the list of Water Fowl)
[ Men. ]
  changed to:
[ Mew. ]
  (in accordance with the text about them that follows.)

(p. 151)
[ {Swaddle-Bills.} ]
  inserted before:
[ Swaddle-Bills are a sort of an ash-colour'd Duck, ]
  (This follows the paragraph on Tutcocks, precedes that on Mew,
  and the absence of this or similar side-note seems to be accidental.)

(p. 165)
[ although their be Water enough for as large Ships ]
  changed to:
[ although there be Water enough for as large Ships ]

(p. 189)
[ Their Remedies area great Cause of this Easiness ]
  changed to:
[ Their Remedies are a great Cause of this Easiness ]

(p. 194)
[ and so strung, as Beds are, and a Cubit ]
  changed to:
[ and so strung, as Beads are, and a Cubit ]

(p. 203)
[ that is common amongst them, If they are caught in theft ]
  changed to:
[ that is common amongst them.  If they are caught in theft ]

In "An Account of the Indians of North-Carolina", the side-notes
do not always perfectly match the text in the original.  In this edition,
an attempt has been made to match them to the relevent text.
The most notable changes are:

p. 204, side note {Get Fire.} has been omitted, as at the end of p. 203
there is the note {Get Fire how.} which refers to the same text,
which is only broken by the turn of a page.  The second note
appears to serve no other purpose than continuity, which is no longer needed.

p. 207, the side note {Moss Match.} actually refers to text
that begins at the end of p. 206, and in this edition the side note
has been inserted at the beginning of the relevant text.

(p. 208)
[ others (where they find a Vein of white Clay, fit for their purpose, ]
  changed to:
[ others (where they find a Vein of white Clay, fit for their purpose) ]
  (Closing parenthesis was missing.)

(pp. 212-213)
Throughout the book, a curious device is used -- at the end of each page,
on a separate line, and right-justified, appears the first word
of the next page.  This does not generally need comment,
but at the junction of pages 212 and 213, an error occurs,
in that at the bottom of page 212 the next-word-to-come is given as "being",
but the first word on page 213 is "because".  The latter is retained,
and the former omitted, as seeming best to fit the context.
It is a possibility that both should have been retained,
i.e., "being because".

(p. 214)
[ is a great Man or hath good Frieds, the Doctor is sent for. ]
  changed to:
[ is a great Man or hath good Friends, the Doctor is sent for. ]
[ keeps sucking. till he has got a great Quaatity of very ]
  changed to:
[ keeps sucking, till he has got a great Quantity of very ]

(p. 220)
[ girded him as hard for a great while) as if he had ]
  changed to:
[ girded him as hard for a great while, as if he had ]
  (No opening parenthesis.)

(p. 226)
[ Mif-kis-'su ]
  changed to:
[ Mis-kis-'su ]
  as Lawson notes the Indian languages have no "f" sound,
  and the old `s' and `f' are very similar in shape.

(p. 227)
  (In the Dictionary of Indian terms, the translations for "Minx" [Mink])
[ Min ]
  changed to:
[ Minx ]
  (in accordance with context and the preferred spelling in the text)

(p. 231)
[ settled America so easily, at they have done, ]
  changed to:
[ settled America so easily, as they have done, ]

(p. 246)
[ into any other Countries, either of our Dominins or foreign, ]
  changed to:
[ into any other Countries, either of our Dominions or foreign, ]

(p. 248)
[ such Ports only, as shall be erected and constitued by the said ]
  changed to:
[ such Ports only, as shall be erected and constituted by the said ]

(p. 253)
[ To Give and Grant unto such Person any Persons, Inhabiting, ]
  changed to:
[ To Give and Grant unto such Person and Persons, Inhabiting, ]

(p. 257)
[ to the Westward of of the Messiasippi River, ]
  changed to:
[ to the Westward of the Messiasippi River, ]

I am unable to match all of Lawson's spellings with modern versions,
especially when it comes to the names of people, places, and tribes.

However, quite likely:

Tuscarora:  Tuskeruro, and probably Turkeiruro also.
Roanoke:  Ronoack.
Neuse River:  Neus-River.
Falls-of-Neuse (north of Raleigh):  Falls of Neus-Creek.
Deep River:  Sapona-River (possible -- given as the West Branch of Cape Fair).
Cape Fear:  Cape Fair.
Haw River:  Hau River.
Congaree:  Congeree
Wateree:  Waterree
Catawba:  Kadapau (possible -- the location seems correct)
Waxhaw:  Waxsaw
Seneca:  Sinnager

"Rocky-River" is probably still "Rocky River", but there are two by that name
  in North Carolina, and the one in question is doubtless the larger one,
  situated between Haw River and Deep River.

Other non-standard spellings follow, but first some notes
on how nonstandard items were handled in the text:

  1.  It seems as if "off" is occasionally spelled "of",
      but almost always in conjunction with "far" or the like:
      i.e., "not far of", "when farthest of".  On p. 128, "when cut of"
      may also be an example.  In all these examples, though,
      "of" *could* be the correct word, if used in the sense of "from".
      If is difficult to ascertain if the difference is spelling or usage.
  2.  Where modern English would always use "than", Lawson sometimes
      uses "that".  This instance is repeated, so it is not conclusively
      an error.  One example is on p. 119, "larger that a Panther".
  3.  Abbreviated words often end with an apostrophe, rather than a period,
      which is now the standard.  "Through" is usually abbreviated as "thro'".
  4.  Italics have been kept throughout, with these notable exceptions:
      in the original, every case of "&c." was italicized;
      the side-notes were entirely italicized, except those words
      generally italicized in the text, which were rendered in normal type --
      this has been reversed.  (Where "&c." appeared in an italicized section,
      it was presented in normal type.  This too was ignored.)
  5.  Printing was not as exact an art in 1709 as it is now,
      and this should be kept in mind throughout the text.
      As spelling was also not as standardized as it is now,
      it is difficult to tell sometimes whether a word has an old spelling,
      has a typographical error, or refers to something entirely different
      from what the first impression would suggest.  In addition to this,
      there is a problem of battered type, which seems especially common
      in italic text -- which, unfortunately, is commonly used here
      for words in Indian languages, which makes reading the text
      extremely difficult at times.  And even without broken type,
      as in Lawson's dictionary entry for "A Rundlet" (perhaps a Roundlet,
      a small round object?) he gives `Ynpyupseunne' as the Woccon term,
      which remains unclear on several accounts, as `u' and `n'
      were not infrequently accidentally inverted in old texts --
      i.e., it might be `Yupyupseunne', but where can we check it?
      No exact answers can be given here, but all these factors
      should be kept in mind when attempting to read this text.
      Also in Lawson's Dictionary, occur the Indian words
      Pulawa and Mif-kis-'su -- the latter has been rendered Mis-kis-'su,
      as the old `s' and `f' were nearly identical, and were probably
      inadvertently switched -- which according to his own notes on p. 231,
      cannot happen, there being no `l' or `f' sounds in the languages.
      (In this old type, `s' has an f-like appearance in most cases,
      but a modern `s' was used if it was the last letter in a word,
      which follows a similar usage with the `s' sound in the Greek alphabet.)
      It is much harder to guess what Pulawa ought to have been.

Modern Spelling is listed first:  alternate spelling(s) follow:
(More or less in the order they appear in the text.)

  1.  When multiple spellings in text include the modern spelling,
      it is not noted.
  2.  Any word ending in -ed, such as "viewed", may end in -'d,
      as "view'd".  This gets a little complicated in such cases
      as "accompany'd" (accompanied), "try'd" (tried), "supply'd" (supplied),
      "carry'd" (carried), "hurry'd" (hurried), and the like.
      Also cases where the root word originally ended with an "e",
      such as "us'd" and "continu'd".  These cases are not always noted.

them:  'em
Mississippi:  Missisipi, Messiasippi (older concept -- seems to refer
  to a vast area, probably everything drained by that river.)
New York:  New-York
spacious:  spatious
public:  publick
style:  stile
fur:  furr
situate:  soituate
price:  prize
privilege:  priviledge
show:  shew
frontier:  fronteer
enterprise:  enterprize
scalp:  sculp
flay:  flea
allege:  alledge  (applies also to alleging, alleged, etc.)
mountainous:  mountanous
gulf:  gulph
lemon:  limon
trial:  tryal
palmetto:  palmeto
mosquitoes:  musketoes, musquetos
troublesome:  troblesome  (p. 8)
tried:  try'd
vegetable:  vegitable
buckets or boquets?: bokeets
Pennsylvania:  Pensilvania, Pensylvania
isthmus:  istmus
Glasgow:  Glasco
corpses:  corps
o'clock:  a Clock
cattle:  cattel
deer (plural):  deers
beach:  beech
clam:  clann (probable -- may be a textual error)
curlew:  curleu
pelican:  pellican
Cyprus:  Ciprus
alarm:  allarm
turkey:  turkie, turky
morbific:  morbifick
complement:  compliment (warning: compliment is also spelled this way)
specific:  specifick
most impatient (impatientest):  impatients (textual error?)
Mons. Huger:  Mons. Eugee
  (according to `Life of Gen. Francis Marion', by Judge William Dobein James,
  "Huger, who lived in the fork between South Santee and Wambaw Creek.")
splendid:  splended
continued:  continu'd
courses:  coarses
crowded:  crouded
Ashley River:  Ashley-River, Ashly-River
clothe or cloth:  cloath
tribe:  trible (textual error?)
rejoice:  rejoyce
Mons. Gendron:  Mons. L'Jandro
???:  Mons. L'Grand
Mons. Gaillard:  Mons. Galliar
affirmed:  affir'm'd
knoll:  knowl  (possible)
paddling:  padling
fabrics (fabrication, a structure):  fabricks
loam:  loom
hut:  hutt
used:  us'd
oil:  oyl
chinquapin, chinkapin, chincapin:  chinkapin, thinkapin (error?)
quiddany (a confection of quinces made with sugar):  quiddony
barbecued:  barbacu'd
loaves:  loves
creoles:  criolo's
courtesan:  curtesan
monsieur:  mounsieur
Leaguer-Ladies (soldier's wives -- Scottish term):  Leager Ladies
parade:  parrade
physic (medicine): physick
surgery:  chirurgery
expense:  expence
retaliation:  retalliation
villainy:  villany
balsamic:  balsamick
belly-ache:  belly-ach
crutches (i.e., props):  crotches
smoke:  smoak
straight:  strait (probable), streight
complete:  compleat
scraped:  scrapt
fatigue:  fatiegue (textual error?)
maize:  maiz
over-flowed:  over-flown
Stroud-water-Blue?:  Stroud-water-Blew
  [From the American Encyclopaedic Dictionary, 1896 (AED):
  stroud:  (Etym. doubtful:  perhaps from Stroud, in Gloucester, England,
  where flannel and cloth are manufactured in large quantities.)
  A kind of coarse blanket or garment of strouding (a coarse kind of cloth
  employed in trade with North American Indians) worn by the Indians
  of North America.]
medley:  medly
ragout:  ragoo
burden:  burthen (archaic)
availing (useful):  eviling    [possible, but questionable]
  [Note also that the "e" in the print is badly formed,
  and there is a slim chance it might be an "a" or another letter.]
chalybeate:  chalybid
most dismal (dismallest):  dismall'st
surprisal:  surprizal
threatening:  threatning
music:  musick
tiger:  tyger (note that in 1709 "tyger" and "panther" were generic terms)
drizzly:  drisly
acorns:  acrons (textual error?)
polecat (skunk):  polcat
arithmetic:  arithmetick
straggling:  stragling
hickory:  hiccory, hickery, hickerie
broth:  broath
  [AED:  1.  water-gruel or spoon-meat.  2.  a sweet.]
brunette:  brounetto  (probable)
  [Probably in the older sense of a woman of brownish complexion;
  i.e., skin, eyes, and hair.]
squaw:  squah
swaddling-cloths:  swadling-clouts
rive:  reave  (possible -- not a common word)
pigged:  pig'd
  [AED:  To be huddled together with several others in a single room
  by night as well as by day; to live like pigs.]
tetter (generic term, skin disease):  tettar
colic:  cholick
gourd:  goard
saddled:  sadl'd
Brussels, Bruxelles:  Bruxels (probable)
fuller's-earth:  fullers-earth
stopped:  stopt
portion:  potion  (possible -- or textual error?)
wondering:  wondring
mechanics:  mechanicks
domestic:  domestick
passed:  past
  [horned.  These references to horns reflect the time this book was written,
  when a man whose wife was unfaithful was said to have horns.]
  [archaic:  a brothel.]
barbecues:  barbakues
fusil:  fusee, fuzee (probable)
  [a fusee can be one of several things, but the context here suggests
  that it was a fusil, which was a type of small, firelock musket.]
  [haste, hurry, expedition.]
human:  humane
fuel:  fewel
ankle:  ancle
wondered:  wondred
  [several senses, including a dupe or fool, especially one imposed upon
  by a prostitute.]
caddis:  cadis
  [The AED had no entry for this, but notes that "Winchester-goose"
  is "a cant term for a venereal sore, said to have originated from
  the public stews (brothels) in Southwark, England,
  being under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Winchester."
  It is probable that a Winchester-wedding would be of the type (or non-type)
  performed in these same institutions.]
bachelor:  batchelor
widower:  widdower
shoes:  shooes
moccasins:  moggisons, moggizons
merchandise:  merchandize
valleys:  vallies
chestnut:  chesnut
perch:  pearch
soup:  soop, soupe
Appalachian:  Appallatche
desert:  desart
Cape Fear:  Cape-Fair, Caip-Fair
befall:  befal
beaver:  bever
buffalo:  buffelo
palisades:  palisadoes
necromantic:  necromantick
Cologne, Koeln:  Cologn  (possible)
cliff or cleft?:  clift
mustaches:  mustachoes
alligator:  allegator  (despite Lawson's claim, NOT a crocodile)
turnip:  turnep
biscuit:  bisket (probable)
wholesome:  wholsome
basin:  bason
percoarson = perkoson, but I can not find any external references to either
certify:  certifie
threatened:  threatned
hindrance:  hinderance
Atlantic:  Atlantick
honeysuckle:  honysuckle, hony-suckle
molasses:  molosses
Roanoke:  Ronoack, Ronoak
shore:  shoar
moored:  mor'd
parakeet:  parrakeeto  (doubtless the Carolina Parakeet, now extinct.)
inferior:  inferiour
tie:  tye
ashore:  ashoar
peas:  pease
garlic:  garlick
chives:  cives
salad:  sallad
lettuce:  lettice
spinach:  spinage
cauliflower:  colly-flower
watermelon:  water-melon
basil:  bazil
assuaging:  asswaging
chamomile, camomile:  camomil
houseleek:  housleek
conveniences:  conveniencies
rounceval:  rouncival  (in the text, a type of pea, now called a marrowfat)
rosin:  rozin
subterranean, subterraneous:  subteraneous
gigantic:  gigantick
linen:  linnen
housewife/housewives:  houswife/houswives
housewifery:  houswifry
woolens:  woollens
choleric:  cholerick
watery:  watry
emetic:  emetick
weirs:  wares  (probable -- pp. 86, 127.  Can also be "wares", however.)
whaling:  whale-fishing
porket:  a young pig or hog.
thrived:  throve
fit:  fitt
Maryland:  Mariland
supplied:  supplyed
wig:  wigg
cutlery:  cuttlery
jasmine, jessamine:  jessamin
browse/browsing:  browze/browzing
evergreen:  ever-green
household:  houshold
virtue:  vertue
vermin:  vermine
Appamattox:  Apamaticks, Appamaticks  (probable)
cloud:  clowd
aspen:  aspin
ache:  ach
burr, bur.  (Both are still used, but "burr" is now more common,
  where John Lawson tends towards "bur".)
cathartic:  cathartick
cachexia (plural):  cachexies ("cachexy" is an English form of the word,
  now rarely, if ever, used.)
calico:  callico
hazelnut:  hazle-nut
conic/conical:  conick
exotic:  exotick
serviceberry/Juneberry/shadblow:  service (given as the name of a fruit),
  the plant it grows on is called the shadbush.  (probable)
relished?:  relisht
apricot:  apricock
gooseberry:  goosberry
vinedresser/vine dresser/vine-dresser:  vigneroon (French "vigneron")
Madeira:  Madera
rabbit:  rabbet
jackal:  jackall
havoc:  havock
holler:  hollow (Not all cases.  Of the Panther, "He hollows like a Man"
  should be "He hollers like a Man".)
sourwood tree:  sowr-wood-tree, sowr wood, sorrel
surprise:  surprize
raspberry:  rasberry
mink:  minx
mussel:  muscle (in cases such as "muscle-shell")
rheum/rheumatism:  rhume/rhumatism
rheumatic:  rhumatick
tortoise:  tortois
burrow:  borough
chipmunk:  ground squirrel (probable)
chase:  chace
insect:  reptile
reptile:  insect
  ("Insect" is used strangely, to include reptiles and amphibians.
  Conversely, Lawson uses "Reptile" to refer to insects.)
thoroughly:  throughly  (possible, p. 127)
entering:  entring
frightened:  frightned
connection:  connexion  (spelling in common use through the 19th century)
excrementitious  (spelling still technically correct, but rare enough
  that "excrescent" is suggested as an alternative, yet even that
  has the wrong connotation in modern usage.)
terrapin:  terebin
tadpole:  tad-pool
easy:  easie
wandering:  wandring
leech:  loach
Screech Owl:  Scritch Owl  (probable)
Trumpeter Swan:  Swans, called Trompeters  (probable)
fish hawk:  fishawk
smallness:  smalness
grasshopper:  grashopper
set:  sett
shot (past tense of shoot):  shotten  (see case on p. 151)
livor:  liver
waiving:  waving  (??? -- p. 163)
rye:  rie
indigo:  indico  (??? -- p. 164)
plasterers:  plaisterers
governor:  governour
joists:  joices (probably this or a related word)
hazel:  hazle
dye:  die  (p. 172)
gait:  gate   (p. 172)
inventor:  inventer  (both spellings acceptable, but "inventer" non-standard)
pare:  pair  (p. 173)
warrior:  warriour
Trap-Ball  (from Sense 8 of "Trap" in the AED)
    A game and also one of the instruments used in playing the game,
    the others being a small bat and a ball.  The trap is of wood,
    made like a slipper, with a hollow at the heel end,
    and a kind of wooden spoon working on a pivot, in which
    the ball is placed.  By striking the handle or end of the spoon
    the ball is projected up into the air, and the striker endeavors
    to hit it as far as possible with the bat before it falls to the ground.
    The opponents endeavor to catch the ball, or to bowl it
    so as to hit the trap.  Also called Trap-bat and Trap-bat and ball.
baton, bat:  batoon  (a variant spelling of baton, with a meaning
    closer to that of bat.  See Trap-Ball)
worse:  worser
wrangling:  rangling
sepulchre:  sepulcre
hominy (grits):  Rockahomine Meal (conjecture:  Lawson gives Roocauwa
  as the Woccon word for homine [hominy].), homine
nowadays:  now adays
flag (p. 189) is another word for rushes or reeds.
artificially (p. 189) has changed meaning over the years.  Means "artfully".
plaid:  plad  (in the sense of the garment, not the pattern)
porcelain:  porcelan  (used in a very old sense, referring to a cowry shell)
antic:  antick
hero:  heroe
disappointment:  disapointment
relic:  relick
tomahawk:  tamahauk
unmanned:  unman'd
frolic:  frolick
prefixed:  prefixt  (obsolete sense)
enough:  enow  (correct but obsolete)
hieroglyphic:  hieroglyphick
republic:  republick
pestle:  pestil, pestel
lightninged:  lightned  (the strict conversion to modern spelling
    would be "lightened", but "lightninged" adheres to modern usage)
lie:  lye
dripping:  dropping  (probable)
barricaded:  barricadoed
stolen:  stoln
frightened:  frightned
lingering:  lingring
mere:  meer (at least in one case -- "meer Motion" may mean something else.)
foul:  fowl  (p. 222 -- same spelling used elsewhere for "fowl".)
phthisis, phthisic:  phthisick  (may be the old sense of the term,
  designating any waste, decay, or emaciation; including tuberculosis,
  which it now designates.)
torrefy:  To dry, roast, scorch, or parch by a fire.  AED.
  This dictionary also notes that "torrefy" is a formation from the French,
  whereas "torrify" (meaning the same thing) is an English formation,
  from "torrid".
Waccon & Woccon   used interchangeably
baked:  bak't
Mongolian Hordes:  Tartarian Hurds
  (`Tartar' or `Tatar' is still in use, but in this context,
  `Mongolian Hordes' is now used almost exclusively.  What is curious
  is why Lawson has this sidenote in the first place --
  apparently he is comparing the Indians to the Tatars,
  though on what grounds is unclear.)
jailor:  jaylor
ghastly:  gastly
stuffed:  stufft
stalking:  stauking
choose:  chuse
mutinying:  mutining
sylvan:  sylvian
forewarn:  forwarn
recall:  recal
lies, lieth:  lyeth
chapel:  chappel
manor:  mannor  (possible)
ore:  oar
dignified:  dignifyed
enjoin:  enjoyn
increase:  encrease
liege:  leige (may be an error in one case)
cheerful:  chearful
let:  lett  (p. 246)  (not sure if this is the same type of `let')
twig:  twigg
brier:  bryar
wherever:  whereever (p.141 -- may be an error resulting from being broken
  at the end of a line -- i.e., where-ever.)
red clay?:  "A marl as red as blood" (p. 40)
aperitive?:  apersive (a laxative -- it fits the context.  p. 83)

End of Project Gutenberg Etext A New Voyage to Carolina, by John Lawson

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