A New Voyage to Carolina

John Lawson, first published 1709

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{Carolina how bounded.}
The Province of Carolina is separated from Virginia by a due West-Line,
which begins at Currituck-Inlet, in 36 Degrees, 30 Minutes,
of Northern-Latitude, and extends indefinitely to the Westward,
and thence to the Southward, as far as 29 Degrees; which is a vast Tract
of Sea-Coast.  But having already treated, as far as is necessary,
concerning South-Carolina, I shall confine myself, in the ensuing Sheets,
to give my Reader a Description of that Part of the Country only,
which lies betwixt Currituck and Cape-Fair, and is almost 34 Deg. North.
And this is commonly call'd North Carolina.

This Part of Carolina is faced with a Chain of Sand-Banks,
which defends it from the Violence and Insults of the Atlantick Ocean;
by which Barrier, a vast Sound is hemm'd in, which fronts
the Mouths of the Navigable and Pleasant Rivers of this Fertile Country,
and into which they disgorge themselves.  {Inlets.}  Thro' the same
are Inlets of several Depths of Water.  Some of their Channels
admit only of Sloops, Brigantines, small Barks, and Ketches;
and such are Currituck, Ronoak, and up the Sound above Hatteras:
Whilst others can receive Ships of Burden, as Ocacock, Topsail-Inlet,
and Cape-Fair; as appears by my Chart.

{First Colony of Carolina.}
The first Discovery and Settlement of this Country was by the Procurement
of Sir Walter Raleigh, in Conjunction with some publick-spirited Gentlemen
of that Age, under the Protection of Queen Elizabeth;
for which Reason it was then named Virginia, being begun on that Part
called Ronoak-Island, where the Ruins of a Fort are to be seen at this day,
as well as some old English Coins which have been lately found;
and a Brass-Gun, a Powder-Horn, and one small Quarter deck-Gun,
made of Iron Staves, and hoop'd with the same Metal; which Method
of making Guns might very probably be made use of in those Days,
for the Convenience of Infant-Colonies.

{Hatteras Indians.}
A farther Confirmation of this we have from the Hatteras Indians,
who either then lived on Ronoak-Island, or much frequented it.
These tell us, that several of their Ancestors were white People,
and could talk in a Book, as we do; the Truth of which is confirm'd
by gray Eyes being found frequently amongst these Indians, and no others.
They value themselves extremely for their Affinity to the English,
and are ready to do them all friendly Offices.  It is probable,
that this Settlement miscarry'd for want of timely Supplies from England;
or thro' the Treachery of the Natives, for we may reasonably suppose that
the English were forced to cohabit with them, for Relief and Conversation;
and that in process of Time, they conform'd themselves
to the Manners of their Indian Relations.  And thus we see,
how apt Humane Nature is to degenerate.

{Sir Walter Raleigh's Ship.}
I cannot forbear inserting here, a pleasant Story that passes
for an uncontested Truth amongst the Inhabitants of this Place;
which is, that the Ship which brought the first Colonies,
does often appear amongst them, under Sail, in a gallant Posture,
which they call Sir Walter Raleigh's Ship, And the truth of this
has been affirm'd to me, by Men of the best Credit in the Country.

{Second Settlement of North-Carolina.}
A second Settlement of this Country was made about fifty Years ago,
in that part we now call Albemarl-County, and chiefly in Chuwon Precinct,
by several substantial Planters, from Virginia, and other Plantations;
Who finding mild Winters, and a fertile Soil, beyond Expectation,
producing every thing that was planted, to a prodigious Increase;
their Cattle, Horses, Sheep, and Swine, breeding very fast,
and passing the Winter, without any Assistance from the Planter;
so that every thing seem'd to come by Nature, the Husbandman living
almost void of Care, and free from those Fatigues which are absolutely
requisite in Winter-Countries, for providing Fodder and other Necessaries;
these Encouragements induc'd them to stand their Ground,
altho' but a handful of People, seated at great Distances one from another,
and amidst a vast number of Indians of different Nations,
who were then in Carolina.  Nevertheless, I say, the Fame of this
new-discover'd Summer-Country spread thro' the neighbouring Colonies,
and, in a few Years, drew a considerable Number of Families thereto,
who all found Land enough to settle themselves in, (had they been
many Thousands more) and that which was very good and commodiously seated,
both for Profit and Pleasure.  {Pleasantness of Carolina.}
And indeed, most of the Plantations in Carolina naturally enjoy
a noble Prospect of large and spacious Rivers, pleasant Savanna's,
and fine Meadows, with their green Liveries, interwoven with
beautiful Flowers, of most glorious Colours, which the several Seasons afford;
hedg'd in with pleasant Groves of the ever-famous Tulip-tree,
the stately Laurel, and Bays, equalizing the Oak in Bigness and Growth;
Myrtles, Jessamines, Wood-bines, Honysuckles, and several other
fragrant Vines and Ever-greens, whose aspiring Branches
shadow and interweave themselves with the loftiest Timbers,
yielding a pleasant Prospect, Shade and Smell, proper Habitations
for the Sweet-singing Birds, that melodiously entertain such as travel
thro' the Woods of Carolina.

The Planters possessing all these Blessings, and the Produce
of great Quantities of Wheat and Indian Corn, in which this Country
is very fruitful, as likewise in Beef, Pork, Tallow, Hides, Deer-Skins,
and Furs; for these Commodities the New-England-Men and Bermudians
visited Carolina in their Barks and Sloops, and carry'd out what they made,
bringing them, in Exchange, Rum, Sugar, Salt, Molosses,
and some wearing Apparel, tho' the last at very extravagant Prices.

As the Land is very fruitful, so are the Planters kind and hospitable
to all that come to visit them; there being very few Housekeepers,
but what live very nobly, and give away more Provisions to Coasters and Guests
who come to see them, than they expend amongst their own Families.

    Of the Inlets and Havens of this Country.

{Currituck Inlet.}
The Bar of Currituck being the Northermost of this Country, presents itself
first to be treated of.  It lies in 36 deg. 30 min. and the Course over
is S.W. by W. having not above seven or eight Foot on the Bar,
tho' a good Harbour, when you are over, where you may ride safe,
and deep enough; but this Part of the Sound is so full of Shoals,
as not to suffer any thing to trade thro' it, that draws above
three Foot Water, which renders it very incommodious.  However,
this affects but some part of the Country, and may be easily remedied,
by carrying their Produce, in small Craft, down to the Vessels,
which ride near the Inlet.

{Ronoak Inlet.}
Ronoak Inlet has Ten Foot Water, the Course over the Bar
is almost W. which leads you thro' the best of the Channel.  This Bar,
as well as Currituck, often shifts by the Violence of the N.E. Storms,
both lying expos'd to those Winds.  Notwithstanding which,
a considerable Trade might be carry'd on, provided there was a Pilot
to bring them in; for it lies convenient for a large Part of this Colony,
whose Product would very easily allow of that Charge; Lat. 35 deg. 50 min.

{Hatteras Inlet.}
The Inlet of Hatteras lies to the Westward of the Cape,
round which is an excellent Harbour.  When the Wind blows hard
at N. or N.E. if you keep a small League from the Cape-Point,
you will have 3, 4, and 5 Fathom, the outermost Shoals lying
about 7 or 8 Leagues from Shoar.  As you come into the Inlet,
keep close to the South Breakers, till you are over the Bar,
where you will have two Fathom at Low-Water.  You may come to an Anchor
in two Fathom and a Half when you are over, then steer over close aboard
the North Shoar, where is four Fathom, close to a Point of Marsh; then steer
up the Sound a long League, till you bring the North Cape of the Inlet
to bear S.S.E. half E. then steer W.N.W. the East-point of Bluff-Land
at Hatteras bearing E.N.E. the Southermost large Hammock towards Ocacock,
bearing S.S.W. half S. then you are in the Sound, over the Bar of Sand,
whereon is but 6 Foot Water; then your Course to Pampticough
is almost West.  It flows on these three Bars S.E. by E. 1/4 E. about
Eight of the Clock, unless there is a hard Gale of Wind at N.E. which
will make it flow two hours longer; but as soon as the Wind is down,
the Tides will have their natural Course:  A hard Gale at N. or N.W. will make
the Water ebb sometimes 24 hours, but still the Tide will ebb and flow,
tho' not seen by the turning thereof, but may be seen
by the Rising of the Water, and Falling of the same, Lat. 35d 20".

{Ocacock Inlet.}
Ocacock is the best Inlet and Harbour yet in this Country;
and has 13 Foot at Low-water upon the Bar.  There are two Channels;
one is but narrow, and lies close aboard the South Cape;
the other in the Middle, viz. between the Middle Ground,
and the South Shoar, and is above half a Mile wide.  The Bar itself
is but half a Cable's Length over, and then you are in 7 or 8 Fathom Water;
a good Harbour.  The Course into the Sound is N.N.W.  At High-water,
and Neap-tides, here is 18 Foot Water.  It lies S.W. from Hatteras Inlet.
Lat. 35d 8".

{Topsail Inlet.}
Topsail Inlet is above two Leagues to the Westward of Cape Look-out.
You have a fair Channel over the Bar, and two Fathom thereon,
and a good Harbour in five or six Fathom to come to an Anchor.
Your Course over this Bar is almost N.W.  Lat. 34d 44".

{Cape Fair Inlet and River.}
As for the Inlet and River of Cape Fair, I cannot give you
a better Information thereof, than has been already deliver'd
by the Gentlemen, who were sent on purpose, from Barbados,
to make a Discovery of that River, in the Year 1663, which is thus.

From Tuesday the 29th of September, to Friday the 2d of October,
we rang'd along the Shoar from Lat. 32 deg. 20 min. to Lat. 33 deg. 11 min.
but could discern no Entrance for our Ship, after we had pass'd
to the Northward of 32 deg. 40 min.  On Saturday, Octob. 3.
a violent Storm overtook us, the Wind between North and East;
which Easterly Winds and Foul Weather continu'd till Monday the 12th;
by reason of which Storms and Foul Weather, we were forced
to get off to Sea, to secure Ourselves and Ship, and were driven
by the Rapidity of a strong Current to Cape Hatteras in Lat. 35 deg. 30 min.
On Monday the 12th aforesaid, we came to an Anchor in seven Fathom
at Cape-Fair Road, and took the Meridian Altitude of the Sun,
and were in Latitude 33 deg. 43 min. the Wind continuing still easterly,
and foul Weather, till Thursday the 15th; and on Friday the 16th,
the Wind being at N.W. we weigh'd and sail'd up Cape-Fair-River,
some 4 or 5 Leagues, and came to an Anchor in 6 or 7 Fathom,
at which time several Indians came on board, and brought us
great Store of fresh Fish, large Mullets, young Bass, Shads,
and several other Sorts of very good well-tasted Fish.
On Saturday the 17th, we went down to the Cape, to see
the English Cattle, but could not find 'em, tho' we rounded the Cape:
And having an Indian Guide with us, here we rode till Oct. 24.
The Wind being against us, we could not go up the River with our Ship;
but went on shoar, and view'd the Land of those Quarters.  On Saturday,
we weigh'd, and sail'd up the River some 4 Leagues, or thereabouts.
Sunday the 25th, we weigh'd again, and row'd up the River, it being calm,
and got up some 14 Leagues from the Harbour's Mouth, where we mor'd our Ship.
On Monday Oct. the 26th, we went down with the Yawl, to Necoes,
an Indian Plantation, and view'd the Land there.  On Tuesday the 27th,
we row'd up the main River, with our Long-Boat, and 12 Men,
some 10 Leagues, or thereabouts.  On Wednesday the 28th,
we row'd up about 8 or 10 Leagues more.  Thursday the 29th,
was foul Weather, with much Rain and Wind, which forc'd us to make Huts,
and lie still.  Friday the 30th, we proceeded up the main River,
7 or 8 Leagues.  Saturday the 31st, we got up 3 or 4 Leagues more,
and came to a Tree that lay cross the River; but because our Provisions
were almost spent, we proceeded no farther, but return'd downward
before Night, and on Monday the 2d of November, we came aboard our Ship.
Tuesday the 3d, we lay still, to refresh ourselves.  On Wednesday the 4th,
we went 5 or 6 Leagues up the River, to search a Branch
that run out of the main River towards the N.W.  In which Branch
we went up 5 or 6 Leagues; but not liking the Land, return'd on board
that Night about Midnight, and call'd that Place Swampy-Branch.
Thursday, November the 5th, we stay'd aboard.  On Friday the 6th,
we went up Greens-River, the Mouth of it being against the Place at which
rode our Ship.  On Saturday the 7th, we proceeded up the said River,
some 14 or 15 Leagues in all, and found it ended in several small Branches;
The Land, for the most part, being marshy and Swamps, we return'd
towards our Ship, and got aboard it in the Night.  Sunday November the 8th,
we lay still, and on Monday the 9th, went again up the main River,
being well stock'd with Provisions, and all things necessary,
and proceeded upwards till Thursday noon, the 12th, at which time
we came to a Place, where were two Islands in the Middle of the River;
and by reason of the Crookedness of the River at that Place, several Trees
lay cross both Branches, which stop'd the Passage of each Branch,
so that we could proceed no farther with our Boat; but went up the River side
by Land, some 3 or 4 Miles, and found the River wider and wider.
So we return'd, leaving it, as far as we could see up a long Reach,
running N.E. we judging ourselves near fifty Leagues North
from the River's Mouth.  In our Return, we view'd the Land
on both Sides the River, and found as good Tracts of dry, well-wooded,
pleasant, and delightful Ground, as we have seen any where in the World,
with abundance of long thick Grass on it, the Land being very level,
with steep Banks on both Sides the River, and in some Places very high,
the Woods stor'd every where, with great Numbers of Deer and Turkies,
we never going on Shoar, but we saw of each Sort; as also
great Store of Partridges, Cranes, and Conies, in several Places;
we likewise heard several Wolves howling in the Woods,
and saw where they had torn a Deer in Pieces.  Also in the River
we saw great Store of Ducks, Teal, Widgeon; and in the Woods,
great Flocks of Parrakeeto's.  The Timber that the Woods afford,
for the most part, consists of Oaks of four or five Sorts,
all differing in Leaves, but each bearing very good Acorns.
We measur'd many of the Oaks in several Places, which we found to be,
in Bigness, some Two, some Three, and others almost Four Fathom in Height,
before you come to Boughs or Limbs; forty, fifty, sixty Foot, and some more;
and those Oaks very common in the upper Parts of both Rivers;
also a very tall large Tree of great Bigness, which some call Cyprus,
the right Name we know not, growing in Swamps.  Likewise Walnut, Birch,
Beech, Maple, Ash, Bay, Willow, Alder, and Holly; and in the lowermost Parts
innumerable Pines, tall and good for Boards or Masts,
growing, for the most part, in barren and sandy, but in some Places
up the River, in good Ground, being mixt amongst Oaks and other Timbers.
We saw Mulberry-Trees, Multitudes of Grape-Vines, and some Grapes
which we eat of.  We found a very large and good Tract of Land,
on the N.W. Side of the River, thin of Timber, except here and there
a very great Oak, and full of Grass, commonly as high
as a Man's Middle, and in many Places to his Shoulders,
where we saw many Deer, and Turkies; one Deer having very large Horns,
and great Body, therefore call'd it Stag-Park.  It being
a very pleasant and delightful Place, we travell'd in it several Miles,
but saw no End thereof.  So we return'd to our Boat, and proceeded
down the River, and came to another Place, some twenty five Leagues
from the River's Mouth on the same Side, where we found a Place,
no less delightful than the former; and as far as we could judge,
both Tracts came into one.  This lower Place we call'd Rocky Point,
because we found many Rocks and Stones, of several Sizes, upon the Land,
which is not common.  We sent our Boat down the River before us;
ourselves travelling by Land, many Miles.  Indeed we were so much taken
with the Pleasantness of the Country, that we travell'd into the Woods
too far to recover our Boat and Company that Night.  The next day
being Sunday, we got to our Boat; and on Monday the 16th of November,
proceeded down to a Place on the East-Side of the River,
some 23 Leagues from the Harbour's Mouth, which we call'd Turky-Quarters,
because we kill'd several Turkies thereabouts; we view'd the Land there,
and found some Tracts of good Ground, and high, facing upon the River
about one Mile inward, but backwards some two Miles, all Pine Land,
but good Pasture Ground:  We return'd to our Boat, and proceeded down
some 2 or 3 Leagues, where we had formerly view'd, and found it
a Tract of as good Land, as any we have seen, and had as good Timber on it.
The Banks on the River being high, therefore we call'd it High-Land-Point.
Having view'd that, we proceeded down the River, going on Shoar
in several Places on both Sides, it being generally large Marshes,
and many of them dry, that they may more fitly be call'd Meadows.
The Wood-Land against them is, for the most part, Pine,
and in some Places as barren, as ever we saw Land, but in other Places
good Pasture-Ground.  On Tuesday, November the 17th, we got aboard our Ship,
riding against the Mouth of Green's River, where our Men
were providing Wood, and fitting the Ship for the Sea:  In the interim,
we took a View of the Country on both sides of the River there,
finding some good Land, but more bad, and the best not comparable
to that above.  Friday the 20th was foul Weather; yet in the Afternoon
we weigh'd, went down the River about two Leagues, and came to an Anchor
against the Mouth of Hilton's River, and took a View of the Land there
on both sides, which appear'd to us much like that at Green's River.
Monday the 23d, we went, with our Long-Boat well victuall'd and mann'd,
up Hilton's River; and when we came three Leagues, or thereabouts,
up the same, we found this and Green's River to come into one,
and so continu'd for four or five Leagues, which makes a great Island
betwixt them.  We proceeded still up the River, till they parted again,
keeping up Hilton's River on the Larboard side, and follow'd the said River
five or six Leagues farther, where we found another large Branch
of Green's River to come into Hilton's, which makes another great Island.
On the Starboard side going up, we proceeded still up the River
some four Leagues, and return'd, taking a View of the Land on both sides,
and then judg'd ourselves to be from our Ship some 18 Leagues W. and by N.
One League below this Place, came four Indians in a Canoe to us,
and sold us several Baskets of Acorns, which we satisfy'd them for,
and so left them; but one of them follow'd us on the Shoar
some two or three Miles, till he came on the Top of a high Bank,
facing on the River; and as we row'd underneath it, the Fellow
shot an Arrow at us, which very narrowly miss'd one of our Men,
and stuck in the upper edge of the Boat; but broke in pieces,
leaving the Head behind.  Hereupon, we presently made to the Shoar,
and went all up the Bank (except Four to guide the Boat)
to look for the Indian, but could not find him:  At last,
we heard some sing, farther in the Woods, which we look'd upon
as a Challenge to us, to come and fight them.  We went towards them
with all Speed; but before we came in Sight of them, heard two Guns go off
from our Boat; whereupon we retreated, as fast as we could,
to secure our Boat and Men.  When we came to them, we found all well,
and demanded the Reason of their firing the Guns:  They told us,
that an Indian came creeping along the Bank, as they suppos'd,
to shoot at them; and therefore they shot at him at a great distance,
with small Shot, but thought they did him no Hurt; for they saw him run away.
Presently after our Return to the Boat, and while we were thus talking,
came two Indians to us, with their Bows and Arrows, crying `Bonny, Bonny'.
We took their Bows and Arrows from them, and gave them Beads,
to their Content; then we led them, by the Hand, to the Boat,
and shew'd them the Arrow-head sticking in her Side, and related to them
the whole Passage; which when they understood, both of them shew'd
a great Concern, and signify'd to us, by Signs, that they knew nothing of it;
so we let them go, and mark'd a Tree on the Top of the Bank,
calling the Place Mount-Skerry.  We look'd up the River,
as far as we could discern, and saw that it widen'd, and came running
directly down the Country:  So we return'd, viewing the Land
on both sides the River, and finding the Banks steep in some places,
but very high in others.  The Bank-sides are generally Clay,
and as some of our Company did affirm, some Marl.  The Land and Timber
up this River is no way inferiour to the best in the other, which we call
the main River.  So far as we could discern, this seem'd as fair,
if not fairer, than the former, and we think runs farther into the Country,
because a strong Current comes down, and a great deal more Drift-Wood.
But, to return to the Business of the Land and Timber:  We saw
several Plots of Ground clear'd by the Indians, after their weak manner,
compass'd round with great Timber Trees, which they are no-wise able to fell,
and so keep the Sun from Corn-Fields very much; yet nevertheless,
we saw as large Corn-stalks, or larger, than we have seen any where else:
So we proceeded down the River, till we found the Canoe the Indian was in,
who shot at us.  In the Morning, we went on Shoar, and cut the same in pieces.
The Indians perceiving us coming towards them, ran away.
Going to his Hutt, we pull'd it down, broke his Pots, Platters, and Spoons,
tore the Deer-Skins and Matts in pieces, and took away a Basket of Acorns;
and afterwards proceeded down the River 2 Leagues, or thereabouts,
and came to another Place of Indians, bought Acorns and some Corn of them,
and went downwards 2 Leagues more.  At last, espying an Indian
peeping over a high Bank, we held up a Gun at him; and calling to him,
`Skerry', presently several Indians came in Sight of us,
and made great Signs of Friendship, saying `Bonny, Bonny'.
Then running before us, they endeavour'd to persuade us to come on shoar;
but we answer'd them with stern Countenances, and call'd out, `Skerry',
taking up our Guns, and threatning to shoot at them,
but they still cry'd `Bonny, Bonny':  And when they saw
they could not prevail, nor persuade us to come on shoar,
two of them came off to us in a Canoe, one paddling with a great Cane,
the other with his Hand.  As soon as they overtook us,
they laid hold of our Boat, sweating and blowing, and told us,
it was `Bonny' on shoar, and at last persuaded us to go on shoar with them.
As soon as we landed, several Indians, to the Number of near 40 lusty Men,
came to us, all in a great Sweat, and told us `Bonny':
We shew'd 'em the Arrow-Head in the Boat-Side, and a Piece of the Canoe
we had cut in Pieces:  Whereupon, the chief Man amongst them
made a long Speech, threw Beads into our Boat, which is
a Sign of great Love and Friendship, and gave us to understand,
that when he heard of the Affront which we had receiv'd,
it caus'd him to cry; and that he and his Men were come
to make Peace with us, assuring us, by Signs, that they would tye the Arms,
and cut off the Head, of the Fellow who had done us that Wrong;
And for a farther Testimony of their Love and Good-Will towards us,
they presented us with two very handsome, proper, young Indian Women,
the tallest that ever we saw in this Country; which we suppos'd to be
the King's Daughters, or Persons of Distinction amongst them.
Those young Women were so ready to come into our Boat;
that one of them crowded in, and would hardly be persuaded to go out again.
We presented the King with a Hatchet and several Beads,
and made Presents of Beads also to the young Women, the chief Men,
and the rest of the Indians, as far as our Beads would go.
They promis'd us, in four Days, to come on board our Ship,
and so departed from us.  When we left the Place, which was soon after,
we call'd it Mount-Bonny, because we had there concluded a firm Peace.
Proceeding down the River 2 or 3 Leagues farther, we came to a Place
where were 9 or 10 Canoes all together.  We went ashoar there,
and found several Indians; but most of them were the same
which had made Peace with us before.  We staid very little at that Place,
but went directly down the River, and came to our Ship, before day.
Thursday the 26th of November, the Wind being at South,
we could not go down to the River's Mouth; but on Friday the 27th,
we weigh'd at the Mouth of Hilton's River, and got down
a League towards the Harbour's Mouth.  On Sunday the 29th,
we got down to Crane-Island, which is 4 Leagues or thereabouts,
above the Entrance of the Harbour's Mouth.  On Tuesday the 1st of December,
we made a Purchase of the River and Land of Cape-Fair, of Wat-Coosa,
and such other Indians, as appear'd to us to be the chief of those Parts.
They brought us Store of fresh Fish aboard, as Mullets, Shads,
and other sorts very good.  This River is all fresh Water, fit to drink.
Some 8 Leagues within the Mouth, the Tide runs up about 35 Leagues,
but stops and rises a great deal farther up.  It flows at the Harbour's Mouth,
S.E. and N.W. 6 Foot at Neap-Tides, and 8 Foot at Spring-Tides.
The Channel on the East side, by the Cape-Shoar, is the best,
and lies close aboard the Cape-Land, being 3 Fathoms at high Water,
in the shallowest Place in the Channel, just at the Entrance;
But as soon as you are past that Place, half a Cables Length inward,
you have 6 or 7 Fathoms, a fair turning Channel into the River,
and so continuing 5 or 6 Leagues upwards.  Afterwards the Channel
is more difficult, in some Places 6 or 7 Fathoms, in others 4 or 5,
and in others but 9 or 10 Foot, especially where the River is broad.
When the River comes to part, and grows narrow, there it is
all Channel from side to side, in most Places; tho' in some
you shall have 5, 6, or 7 Fathoms, but generally 2 or 3, Sand and Oaze.
We view'd the Cape-Land, and judg'd it to be little worth,
the Woods of it being shrubby and low, and the Land sandy and barren;
in some Places Grass and Rushes, in others nothing but clear Sand:
A Place fitter to starve Cattle, in our Judgment, than to keep 'em alive;
yet the Indians, as we understand, keep the English Cattle down there,
and suffer them not to go off of the said Cape, (as we suppose)
because the Country Indians shall have no Part with them;
and therefore 'tis likely, they have fallen out about them,
which shall have the greatest Share.  They brought on board our Ship
very good and fat Beef several times, which they sold us
at a very reasonable Price; also fat and very large Swine, good and cheap;
but they may thank their Friends of New-England, who brought their Hogs
to so fair a Market.  Some of the Indians brought very good Salt aboard us,
and made Signs, pointing to both sides of the River's Mouth,
that there was great Store thereabouts.  We saw up the River,
several good Places for the setting up of Corn or Saw-Mills.
In that time, as our Business call'd us up and down the River and Branches,
we kill'd of wild Fowl, 4 Swans, 10 Geese, 29 Cranes,
10 Turkies, 40 Ducks and Mallards, 3 dozen of Parrakeeto's,
and 6 dozen of other small Fowls, as Curlues and Plover, &c.

Whereas there was a Writing left in a Post, at the Point of Cape-Fair River,
by those New-England-Men, that left Cattle with the Indians there,
the Contents whereof tended not only to the Disparagement of the Land
about the said River, but also to the great Discouragement
of all such as should hereafter come into those Parts to settle:
In answer to that scandalous Writing, We, whose Names are underwritten,
do affirm, That we have seen, facing both sides the River and Branches
of Cape-Fair aforesaid, as good Land, and as well timber'd,
as any we have seen in any other Part of the World, sufficient to accommodate
Thousands of our English Nation, and lying commodiously
by the said River's Side.

On Friday the 4th of December, the Wind being fair, we put out to Sea,
bound for Barbados; and, on the 6th of February, 1664,
came to an Anchor in Carlisle-Bay; it having pleas'd God,
after several apparent Dangers both by Sea and Land, to bring us all in Safety
to our long-wish'd-for and much-desir'd Port, to render an Account
of our Discovery; the Verity of which we do assert.

                                   Anthony Long.
                                   William Hilton.
                                   Peter Fabian.

Thus you have an Account of the Latitude, Soil, and Advantages of Cape-Fair,
or Clarendon-River, which was settled in the Year 1661, or thereabouts;
and had it not been for the irregular Practices of some of that Colony
against the Indians, by sending away some of their Children,
(as I have been told) under Pretence of instructing 'em in Learning,
and the Principles of the Christian Religion; which so disgusted
the Indians, that tho' they had then no Guns, yet they never gave over,
till they had entirely rid themselves of the English,
by their Bows and Arrows; with which they did not only take off themselves,
but also their Stocks of Cattle; And this was so much the more
ruinous to them, in that they could have no Assistance from South-Carolina,
which was not then planted; and the other Plantations were but
in their Infancy.  Were it not for such ill Practices, I say,
it might, in all Probability, have been, at this day, the best Settlement
in their Lordships great Province of Carolina.

{Albemarl Sound and Rivers.}
The Sound of Albemarl, with the Rivers and Creeks of that Country,
afford a very rich and durable Soil.  The Land, in most Places,
lies indifferent low, (except in Chuwon, and high up the Rivers)
but bears an incredible Burden of Timber; the Low-Grounds being
cover'd with Beech; and the High-Land yielding lofty Oaks, Walnut-Trees,
and other useful Timber.  The Country, in some Plantations,
has yearly produc'd Indian Corn, or some other Grain, ever since
this Country was first seated, without the Trouble of Manuring or Dressing;
and yet (to all appearance) it seems not to be, in the least,
impoverish'd, neither do the Planters ever miss of a good Crop,
unless a very unnatural Season visits them, which seldom happens.

    Of the Corn of Carolina.

The Wheat of this Place is very good, seldom yielding less than thirty fold,
provided the Land is good where it is sown; Not but that there has been
Sixty-six Increase for one measure sown in Piny-Land, which we account
the meanest Sort.  And I have been inform'd, by People of Credit,
that Wheat which was planted in a very rich Piece of Land,
brought a hundred and odd Pecks, for one.  If our Planters,
when they found such great Increase, would be so curious as to make
nice Observations of the Soil, and other remarkable Accidents,
they would soon be acquainted with the Nature of the Earth and Climate,
and be better qualified to manage their Agriculture
to more Certainty, and greater Advantage; whereby they might arrive
to the Crops and Harvests of Babylon, and those other fruitful Countries
so much talk'd of.  For I must confess, I never saw one Acre of Land
manag'd as it ought to be in Carolina, since I knew it;
and were they as negligent in their Husbandry in Europe,
as they are in Carolina, their Land would produce nothing
but Weeds and Straw.

They have try'd Rye, and it thrives very well; but having
such Plenty of Maiz, they do not regard it, because it makes black Bread,
unless very curiously handled.

Barley has been sowed in small quantities, and does better
than can be expected; because that Grain requires the Ground
to be very well work'd with repeated Ploughings, which our general Way
of breaking the Earth with Hoes, can, by no means, perform,
tho' in several Places we have a light, rich, deep, black Mould,
which is the particular Soil in which Barley best thrives.

The naked Oats thrive extraordinary well; and the other would prove
a very bold Grain; but the Plenty of other Grains makes them not much coveted.

The Indian Corn, or Maiz, proves the most useful Grain in the World;
and had it not been for the Fruitfulness of this Species,
it would have proved very difficult to have settled some of the Plantations
in America.  It is very nourishing, whether in Bread, sodden, or otherwise;
And those poor Christian Servants in Virginia, Maryland,
and the other northerly Plantations, that have been forced to live
wholly upon it, do manifestly prove, that it is the most nourishing Grain,
for a Man to subsist on, without any other Victuals.  And this Assertion
is made good by the Negro-Slaves, who, in many Places, eat nothing
but this Indian Corn and Salt.  Pigs and Poultry fed with this Grain,
eat the sweetest of all others.  It refuses no Grounds,
unless the barren Sands, and when planted in good Ground,
will repay the Planter seven or eight hundred fold; besides the Stalks
bruis'd and boil'd, make very pleasant Beer, being sweet like the Sugar-Cane.

There are several sorts of Rice, some bearded, others not,
besides the red and white; But the white Rice is the best.
Yet there is a sort of perfum'd Rice in the East-Indies,
which gives a curious Flavour, in the Dressing.  And with this sort
America is not yet acquainted; neither can I learn, that any of it
has been brought over to Europe; the Rice of Carolina being esteem'd
the best that comes to that Quarter of the World.  It is of great Increase,
yielding from eight hundred to a thousand-fold, and thrives best in wild Land,
that has never been broken up before.

Buck-Wheat is of great Increase in Carolina; but we make no other use of it,
than instead of Maiz, to feed Hogs and Poultry:  {Guinea-Wheat.}
And Guinea Corn, which thrives well here, serves for the same use.

{Pulse.  Bushel-Bean.}
Of the Pulse-kind, we have many sorts.  The first is the Bushel-Bean,
which is a spontaneous Product.  They are so called, because they bring
a Bushel of Beans for one that is planted.  They are set in the Spring,
round Arbours, or at the Feet of Poles, up which they will climb,
and cover the Wattling, making a very pretty Shade to sit under.
They continue flowering, budding, and ripening all the Summer long,
till the Frost approaches, when they forbear their Fruit, and die.
The Stalks they grow on, come to the Thickness of a Man's Thumb;
and the Bean is white and mottled, with a purple Figure on each side it,
like an Ear.  They are very flat, and are eaten as the Windsor-Bean is,
being an extraordinary well-relish'd Pulse, either by themselves,
or with Meat.

{Indian Rouncevals.}
We have the Indian Rounceval, or Miraculous Pease, so call'd
from their long Pods, and great Increase.  These are latter Pease,
and require a pretty long Summer to ripen in.  {Pease and Beans.}
They are very good; and so are the Bonavis, Calavancies, Nanticokes,
and abundance of other Pulse, too tedious here to name,
which we found the Indians possess'd of, when first we settled in America;
some of which sorts afford us two Crops in one Year;
as the Bonavis and Calavancies, besides several others of that kind.

{Eng. Bean.}
Now I am launch'd into a Discourse of the Pulse, I must acquaint you,
that the European Bean planted here, will, in time, degenerate into
a dwarfish sort, if not prevented by a yearly Supply of foreign Seed,
and an extravagant rich Soil; yet these Pigmy-Beans are
the sweetest of that kind I ever met withal.

As for all the sorts of English Pease that we have yet
made tryal of, they thrive very well in Carolina.  Particularly,
the white and gray Rouncival, the common Field-Pease,
and Sickle-Pease yield very well, and are of a good Relish.
As for the other sorts, I have not seen any made tryal of as yet,
but question not their coming to great Perfection with us.

The Kidney-Beans were here before the English came, being very plentiful
in the Indian Corn-Fields.

The Garden-Roots that thrive well in Carolina, are Carrots, Leeks,
Parsnips, Turneps, Potatoes, of several delicate sorts, Ground Artichokes,
Radishes, Horse-Radish, Beet, both sorts, Onions, Shallot, Garlick, Cives,
and the Wild-Onions.

The Sallads are the Lettice, Curl'd, Red, Cabbage, and Savoy.
The Spinage round and prickly, Fennel, sweet and the common Sort,
Samphire in the Marshes excellent, so is the Dock or Wild-Rhubarb,
Rocket, Sorrel, French and English, Cresses of several Sorts,
Purslain wild, and that of a larger Size which grows in the Gardens;
{No Purslain in Indian Fields.} for this Plant is never met withal
in the Indian Plantations, and is, therefore, suppos'd to proceed
from Cow-Dung, which Beast they keep not.  Parsley two Sorts;
Asparagus thrives to a Miracle, without hot Beds or dunging the Land,
White-Cabbage from European or New-England Seed, for the People
are negligent and unskilful, and don't take care to provide Seed of their own.
The Colly-Flower we have not yet had an Opportunity to make Tryal of,
nor has the Artichoke ever appear'd amongst us, that I can learn.
Coleworts plain and curl'd, Savoys; besides the Water-Melons
of several Sorts, very good, which should have gone amongst the Fruits.
Of Musk-Melons we have very large and good, and several Sorts,
as the Golden, Green, Guinea, and Orange.  Cucumbers long, short,
and prickly, all these from the Natural Ground, and great Increase,
without any Helps of Dung or Reflection.  Pompions yellow and very large,
Burmillions, Cashaws, an excellent Fruit boil'd; Squashes, Simnals,
Horns, and Gourds; besides many other Species, of less Value,
too tedious to name.

{Pot-herbs, and others for Physick.}
Our Pot-herbs and others of use, which we already possess,
are Angelica wild and tame, Balm, Bugloss, Borage, Burnet,
Clary, Marigold, Pot-Marjoram, and other Marjorams, Summer and Winter Savory,
Columbines, Tansey, Wormwood, Nep, Mallows several Sorts, Drage red and white,
Lambs Quarters, Thyme, Hyssop of a very large Growth, sweet Bazil,
Rosemary, Lavender:  The more Physical, are Carduus Benedictus,
the Scurvy-grass of America, I never here met any of the European sort;
Tobacco of many sorts, Dill, Carawa, Cummin, Anise, Coriander,
all sorts of Plantain of England, and two sorts spontaneous,
good Vulneraries; Elecampane, Comfrey, Nettle, the Seed from England,
none Native; Monks Rhubarb, Burdock, Asarum wild in the Woods,
reckon'd one of the Snake-Roots; Poppies in the Garden,
none wild yet discover'd; Wormseed, Feverfew, Rue, Ground-Ivy spontaneous,
but very small and scarce, Aurea virga, {Rattle-Snakes.}
four sorts of Snake-Roots, besides the common Species,
which are great Antidotes against that Serpent's Bite, and are easily rais'd
in the Garden; Mint; {James-Town-Weed, the Seed like Onion Seed.}
James-Town-Weed, so called from Virginia, the Seed it bears
is very like that of an Onion; it is excellent for curing Burns,
and asswaging Inflammations, but taken inwardly brings on
a sort of drunken Madness.  One of our Marsh-Weeds, like a Dock,
has the same Effect, and possesses the Party with Fear and Watchings.
The Red-Root whose Leaf is like Spear-Mint, is good for
Thrushes and sore Mouths; Camomil, but it must be kept in the Shade,
otherwise it will not thrive; Housleek first from England;
Vervin; Night-Shade, several kinds; Harts-Tongue; Yarrow abundance,
Mullein the same, both of the Country; Sarsaparilla, and abundance more
I could name, yet not the hundredth part of what remains, a Catalogue of which
is a Work of many Years, and without any other Subject, would swell
to a large Volume, and requires the Abilities of a skilful Botanist:
Had not the ingenious Mr. Banister (the greatest Virtuoso we ever had
on the Continent) been unfortunately taken out of this World,
he would have given the best Account of the Plants of America,
of any that ever yet made such an Attempt in these Parts.
Not but we are satisfy'd, the Species of Vegetables in Carolina,
are so numerous, that it requires more than one Man's Age
to bring the chiefest Part of them into regular Classes;
the Country being so different in its Situation and Soil,
that what one place plentifully affords, another is absolutely a stranger to;
yet we generally observe, that the greatest Variety is found
in the Low Grounds, and Savanna's.

The Flower-Garden in Carolina is as yet arriv'd but to
a very poor and jejune Perfection.  We have only two sorts of Roses;
the Clove-July-Flowers, Violets, Princes Feather, and Tres Colores.
There has been nothing more cultivated in the Flower-Garden,
which, at present, occurs to my Memory; but as for the wild
spontaneous Flowers of this Country, Nature has been so liberal,
that I cannot name one tenth part of the valuable ones; And since,
to give Specimens, would only swell the Volume, and give little Satisfaction
to the Reader, I shall therefore proceed to the Present State of Carolina,
and refer the Shrubs and other Vegetables of larger Growth, till hereafter,
and then shall deliver them and the other Species in their Order.

    The Present State of Carolina.

When we consider the Latitude and convenient Situation of Carolina,
had we no farther Confirmation thereof, our Reason would inform us,
that such a Place lay fairly to be a delicious Country,
being placed in that Girdle of the World which affords Wine, Oil, Fruit,
Grain, and Silk, with other rich Commodities, besides a sweet Air,
moderate Climate, and fertile Soil; these are the Blessings
(under Heaven's Protection) that spin out the Thread of Life
to its utmost Extent, and crown our Days with the Sweets of Health and Plenty,
which, when join'd with Content, renders the Possessors
the happiest Race of Men upon Earth.

{The Present State of Carolina.}
The Inhabitants of Carolina, thro' the Richness of the Soil,
live an easy and pleasant Life.  The Land being of several sorts of Compost,
some stiff, others light, some marl, others rich black Mould;
here barren of Pine, but affording Pitch, Tar, and Masts;
there vastly rich, especially on the Freshes of the Rivers,
one part bearing great Timbers, others being Savanna's or natural Meads,
where no Trees grow for several Miles, adorn'd by Nature
with a pleasant Verdure, and beautiful Flowers, frequent in no other Places,
yielding abundance of Herbage for Cattle, Sheep, and Horse.
The Country in general affords pleasant Seats, the Land
(except in some few Places) being dry and high Banks, {Necks of Land.}
parcell'd out into most convenient Necks, (by the Creeks)
easy to be fenced in for securing their Stocks to more strict Boundaries,
whereby, with a small trouble of fencing, almost every Man
may enjoy, to himself, an entire Plantation, or rather Park.
These, with the other Benefits of Plenty of Fish, Wild-Fowl, Venison,
and the other Conveniencies which this Summer-Country naturally furnishes,
has induc'd a great many Families to leave the more Northerly Plantations,
and sit down under one of the mildest Governments in the World;
in a Country that, with moderate Industry, will afford all
the Necessaries of Life.  We have yearly abundance of Strangers
come among us, who chiefly strive to go Southerly to settle,
because there is a vast Tract of rich Land betwixt the Place we are seated in,
and Cape-Fair, and upon that River, and more Southerly,
which is inhabited by none but a few Indians, who are at this time
well affected to the English, and very desirous of their coming
to live among them.  {Purchase of Land.}  The more Southerly,
the milder Winters, with the Advantages of purchasing the Lords Land
at the most easy and moderate Rate of any Lands in America,
nay (allowing all Advantages thereto annex'd) I may say,
the Universe does not afford such another; Besides, Men have
a great Advantage of choosing good and commodious Tracts of Land
at the first Seating of a Country or River, whereas the later Settlers
are forced to purchase smaller Dividends of the old Standers,
and sometimes at very considerable Rates; {Land in Virginia and Maryland.}
as now in Virginia and Maryland, where a thousand Acres of good Land
cannot be bought under twenty Shillings an Acre, besides two Shillings
yearly Acknowledgment for every hundred Acres; which Sum,
be it more or less, will serve to put the Merchant or Planter here
into a good posture of Buildings, Slaves, and other Necessaries,
when the Purchase of his Land comes to him on such easy Terms.
{Stocks Increase.}  And as our Grain and Pulse thrives with us to admiration,
no less do our Stocks of Cattle, Horses, Sheep, and Swine multiply.

The Beef of Carolina equalizes the best that our neighbouring
Colonies afford; the Oxen are of a great size when they are suffer'd to live
to a fit Age.  I have seen fat and good Beef at all times of the Year,
but October and the cool Months are the Seasons we kill our Beeves in,
when we intend them for Salting or Exportation; for then they are in
their prime of Flesh, all coming from Grass, we never using
any other Food for our Cattle.  {Heifers.}  The Heifers bring Calves
at eighteen or twenty Months old, which makes such a wonderful Increase,
that many of our Planters, from very mean Beginnings, have rais'd themselves,
and are now Masters of hundreds of fat Beeves, and other Cattle.

The Veal is very good and white, so is the Milk very pleasant and rich,
there being, at present, considerable Quantities of Butter and Cheese made,
that is very good, not only serving our own Necessities,
but we send out a great deal among our Neighbours.

The Sheep thrive very well at present, having most commonly two Lambs
at one yeaning:  As the Country comes to be open'd, they prove still better,
Change of Pasture being agreeable to that useful Creature.
Mutton is (generally) exceeding Fat, and of a good Relish;
their Wool is very fine, and proves a good Staple.

The Horses are well-shap'd and swift; the best of them would sell
for ten or twelve Pounds in England.  They prove excellent Drudges,
and will travel incredible Journeys.  They are troubled with
very few Distempers, neither do the cloudy-fac'd grey Horses go blind here,
as in Europe.  As for Spavins, Splints, and Ring-Bones,
they are here never met withal, as I can learn.  Were we to have
our Stallions and choice of Mares from England, or any other of a good Sort,
and careful to keep them on the Highlands, we could not fail
of a good Breed; but having been supply'd with our first Horses
from the neighbouring Plantations, which were but mean,
they do not as yet come up to the Excellency of the English Horses;
tho' we generally find, that the Colt exceeds, in Beauty and Strength,
its Sire and Dam.

The Pork exceeds any in Europe; the great Diversity and Goodness
of the Acorns and Nuts which the Woods afford, making that Flesh
of an excellent Taste, and produces great Quantities; so that Carolina
(if not the chief) is not inferior, in this one Commodity, to any Colony
in the hands of the English.

As for Goats, they have been found to thrive and increase well,
but being mischievous to Orchards and other Trees, makes People decline
keeping them.

Our Produce for Exportation to Europe and the Islands in America,
are Beef, Pork, Tallow, Hides, Deer-Skins, Furs, Pitch, Tar,
Wheat, Indian-Corn, Pease, Masts, Staves, Heading, Boards,
and all sorts of Timber and Lumber for Madera and the West-Indies;
Rozin, Turpentine, and several sorts of Gums and Tears,
with some medicinal Drugs, are here produc'd; Besides Rice, and several other
foreign Grains, which thrive very well.  Good Bricks and Tiles are made,
and several sorts of useful Earths, as Bole, Fullers-Earth, Oaker,
and Tobacco-pipe-Clay, in great plenty; Earths for the Potters Trade,
and fine Sand for the Glass-makers.  In building with Bricks,
we make our Lime of Oyster-Shells, tho' we have great Store of Lime-stone,
towards the Heads of our Rivers, where are Stones of all sorts
that are useful, besides vast Quantities of excellent Marble.
Iron-Stone we have plenty of, both in the Low-Grounds and on the Hills;
Lead and Copper has been found, so has Antimony heretofore;
But no Endeavours have been us'd to discover those Subteraneous Species;
otherwise we might, in all probability, find out the best of Minerals,
which are not wanting in Carolina.  Hot Baths we have an account of
from the Indians that frequent the Hill-Country, {Salt-peter.}
where a great likelihood appears of making Salt-peter, because the Earth,
in many places, is strongly mix'd with a nitrous Salt, which is much coveted
by the Beasts, who come at some Seasons in great Droves and Herds,
and by their much licking of this Earth, make great Holes in those Banks,
which sometimes lie at the heads of great Precipices, where their Eagerness
after this Salt hastens their End, by falling down the high Banks,
so that they are dash'd in Pieces.  It must be confess'd,
that the most noble and sweetest Part of this Country, is not inhabited
by any but the Savages; and a great deal of the richest Part thereof,
has no Inhabitants but the Beasts of the Wilderness:
For, the Indians are not inclinable to settle in the richest Land,
because the Timbers are too large for them to cut down,
and too much burthen'd with Wood for their Labourers to make Plantations of;
besides, the Healthfulness of those Hills is apparent,
by the Gigantick Stature, and Gray-Heads, so common amongst the Savages
that dwell near the Mountains.  The great Creator of all things,
having most wisely diffus'd his Blessings, by parcelling out
the Vintages of the World, into such Lots, as his wonderful Foresight saw
most proper, requisite, and convenient for the Habitations of his Creatures.
Towards the Sea, we have the Conveniency of Trade, Transportation,
and other Helps the Water affords; but oftentimes, those Advantages
are attended with indifferent Land, a thick Air, and other Inconveniences;
when backwards, near the Mountains, you meet with the richest Soil,
a sweet, thin Air, dry Roads, pleasant small murmuring Streams,
and several beneficial Productions and Species, which are unknown
in the European World.  One Part of this Country affords
what the other is wholly a Stranger to.

{Chalybeate Waters.}
We have Chalybeate Waters of several Tastes and different Qualities;
some purge, others work by the other Emunctories.  We have,
amongst the Inhabitants, a Water, that is, inwardly, a great Apersive,
and, outwardly, cures Ulcers, Tettars, and Sores, by washing therewith.

{Coal-Mine in Virginia.}
There has been a Coal-Mine lately found near the Mannakin Town,
above the Falls of James-River in Virginia, which proves
very good, and is us'd by the Smiths, for their Forges;
and we need not doubt of the same amongst us, towards the Heads of our Rivers;
but the Plenty of Wood (which is much the better Fuel)
makes us not inquisitive after Coal-Mines.  {French Refugees.}
Most of the French, who lived at that Town on James-River, are remov'd
to Trent-River, in North-Carolina, where the rest were expected daily
to come to them, when I came away, which was in August, 1708.
They are much taken with the Pleasantness of that Country,
and, indeed, are a very industrious People.  At present, they make
very good Linnen-Cloath and Thread, and are very well vers'd in cultivating
Hemp and Flax, of both which they raise very considerable Quantities;
and design to try an Essay of the Grape, for making of Wine.

As for those of our own Country in Carolina, some of the Men
are very laborious, and make great Improvements in their Way;
but I dare hardly give 'em that Character in general.  The easy Way of living
in that plentiful Country, makes a great many Planters very negligent,
which, were they otherwise, that Colony might now have been
in a far better Condition than it is, (as to Trade, and other Advantages)
which an universal Industry would have led them into.

{Women good Houswives.}
The Women are the most industrious Sex in that Place, and,
by their good Houswifry, make a great deal of Cloath of their own Cotton,
Wool and Flax; some of them keeping their Families (though large)
very decently apparel'd, both with Linnens and Woollens,
so that they have no occasion to run into the Merchant's Debt,
or lay their Money out on Stores for Cloathing.

{Natives of Carolina.}
The Christian Natives of Carolina are a straight, clean-limb'd People;
the Children being seldom or never troubled with Rickets,
or those other Distempers, that the Europeans are visited withal.
'Tis next to a Miracle, to see one of them deform'd in Body.
The Vicinity of the Sun makes Impression on the Men, who labour
out of doors, or use the Water.  {Beautiful.}  As for those Women,
that do not expose themselves to the Weather, they are often very fair,
and generally as well featur'd, as you shall see any where,
and have very brisk charming Eyes, which sets them off to Advantage.
They marry very young; some at Thirteen or Fourteen; and She that stays
till Twenty, is reckon'd a stale Maid; which is a very indifferent Character
in that warm Country.  The Women are very fruitful; most Houses
being full of Little Ones.  It has been observ'd, that Women long marry'd,
and without Children, in other Places, have remov'd to Carolina,
and become joyful Mothers.  They have very easy Travail
in their Child-bearing, in which they are so happy, as seldom to miscarry.
{Not Passionate.}  Both Sexes are generally spare of Body,
and not Cholerick, nor easily cast down at Disappointments and Losses,
seldom immoderately grieving at Misfortunes, unless for
the Loss of their nearest Relations and Friends, which seems to make
a more than ordinary Impression upon them.  Many of the Women
are very handy in Canoes, and will manage them with great Dexterity and Skill,
which they become accustomed to in this watry Country.  {Good Wives.}
They are ready to help their Husbands in any servile Work, as Planting,
when the Season of the Weather requires Expedition; Pride seldom banishing
good Houswifry.  The Girls are not bred up to the Wheel, and Sewing only;
but the Dairy and Affairs of the House they are very well acquainted withal;
so that you shall see them, whilst very young, manage their Business
with a great deal of Conduct and Alacrity.  {Natives are docile.}
The Children of both Sexes are very docile, and learn any thing
with a great deal of Ease and Method; and those that have
the Advantages of Education, write good Hands, and prove good Accountants,
which is most coveted, and indeed most necessary in these Parts.
The young Men are commonly of a bashful, sober Behaviour; {No Prodigals.}
few proving Prodigals, to consume what the Industry of their Parents
has left them, but commonly improve it.  The marrying so young,
carries a double Advantage with it, and that is, that the Parents see
their Children provided for in Marriage, and the young married People
are taught by their Parents, how to get their Living; for their Admonitions
make great Impressions on their Children.  {Great Age of Americans.}
I had heard (before I knew this new World) that the Natives of America
were a short-liv'd People, which, by all the Observations I could ever make,
proves quite contrary; for those who are born here, and in other Colonies,
live to as great Ages as any of the Europeans, the Climate being free
from Consumptions, which Distemper, fatal to England, they are Strangers to.
And as the Country becomes more clear'd of Wood, it still becomes
more healthful to the Inhabitants, and less addicted to the Ague;
which is incident to most new Comers into America from Europe,
yet not mortal.  A gentle Emetick seldom misses of driving it away,
but if it is not too troublesome, 'tis better to let the Seasoning have
its own Course, in which case, the Party is commonly free from it ever after,
and very healthful.

And now, as to the other Advantages the Country affords,
we cannot guess at them at present, because, as I said before,
the best Part of this Country is not inhabited by the English,
from whence probably will hereafter spring Productions that this Age
does not dream of, and of much more Advantage to the Inhabitants
than any things we are yet acquainted withal:  And as for
several Productions of other Countries, much in the same Latitude,
we may expect, with good Management, they will become familiar to us,
as Wine, Oil, Fruit, Silk, and other profitable Commodities,
such as Drugs, Dyes, &c.  And at present the Curious may have
a large Field to satisfy and divert themselves in, {Collections.}
as Collections of strange Beasts, Birds, Insects, Reptiles,
Shells, Fishes, Minerals, Herbs, Flowers, Plants, Shrubs, intricate Roots,
Gums, Tears, Rozins, Dyes, and Stones, with several other that yield
Satisfaction and Profit to those, whose Inclinations tend that Way.
And as for what may be hop'd for, towards a happy Life and Being,
by such as design to remove thither, I shall add this;
That with prudent Management, I can affirm, by Experience, not by Hear-say,
That any Person, with a small Beginning, may live very comfortably,
and not only provide for the Necessaries of Life, but likewise for those
that are to succeed him; {Provisions very cheap.} Provisions being
very plentiful, and of good Variety, to accommodate genteel House-keeping;
and the neighbouring Indians are friendly, and in many Cases
serviceable to us, in making us Wares to catch Fish in, for a small matter,
which proves of great Advantage to large Families, because those Engines take
great Quantities of many Sorts of Fish, that are very good and nourishing:
{Indians Hunters.}  Some of them hunt and fowl for us at reasonable Rates,
the Country being as plentifully provided with all Sorts of Game,
as any Part of America; the poorer Sort of Planters often get them
to plant for them, by hiring them for that Season, or for so much Work,
which commonly comes very reasonable.  Moreover, it is remarkable,
That no Place on the Continent of America, has seated an English Colony
so free from Blood-shed, as Carolina; but all the others have been
more damag'd and disturb'd by the Indians, than they have;
which is worthy Notice, when we consider how oddly it was first planted
with Inhabitants.

The Fishing-Trade in Carolina might be carried on to great Advantage,
considering how many Sorts of excellent Fish our Sound and Rivers afford,
which cure very well with Salt, as has been experienced
by some small Quantities, which have been sent abroad,
and yielded a good Price.  {Whale-Fishing.}  As for the Whale-fishing,
it is no otherwise regarded than by a few People who live on the Sand-Banks;
and those only work on dead Fish cast on shoar, none being struck
on our Coast, as they are to the Northward; altho' we have
Plenty of Whales there.  Great Plenty is generally the Ruin of Industry.
Thus our Merchants are not many, nor have those few there be,
apply'd themselves to the European Trade.  The Planter sits contented
at home, whilst his Oxen thrive and grow fat, and his Stocks daily increase;
The fatted Porkets and Poultry are easily rais'd to his Table,
and his Orchard affords him Liquor, so that he eats, and drinks away
the Cares of the World, and desires no greater Happiness,
than that which he daily enjoys.  Whereas, not only the European,
but also the Indian-Trade, might be carried on to a great Profit,
because we lie as fairly for the Body of Indians, as any Settlement
in English-America; {Indian-Trade.} And for the small Trade
that has been carried on in that Way, the Dealers therein have throve
as fast as any Men, and the soonest rais'd themselves of any People
I have known in Carolina.

Lastly, As to the Climate, it is very healthful; {Summer.} our Summer
is not so hot as in other places to the Eastward in the same Latitude;
{No Earthquakes.} neither are we ever visited by Earthquakes, as many places
in Italy and other Summer-Countries are.  Our Northerly Winds, in Summer,
cool the Air, and free us from pestilential Fevers, which Spain, Barbary,
and the neighbouring Countries in Europe, &c. are visited withal.
{Serene.}  Our Sky is generally serene and clear, and the Air very thin,
in comparison of many Parts of Europe, where Consumptions and Catarrhs reign
amongst the Inhabitants.  The Winter has several Fitts of sharp Weather,
especially when the Wind is at N.W. which always clears the Sky,
though never so thick before.  However, such Weather is very agreeable
to European Bodies, and makes them healthy.  The N.E. Winds
blowing in Winter, bring with them thick Weather, and, in the Spring,
sometimes, blight the Fruits; but they very seldom endure long,
being blown away by Westerly Winds, and then all becomes fair and clear again.
{Spring.}  Our Spring, in Carolina, is very beautiful,
and the most pleasant Weather a Country can enjoy.  {Fall.}
The Fall is accompanied with cool Mornings, which come in
towards the latter end of August, and so continue (most commonly)
very moderate Weather till about Christmas; then Winter comes on apace.
Tho' these Seasons are very piercing, yet the Cold is of no continuance.
Perhaps, you will have cold Weather for three or four days at a time;
then pleasant warm Weather follows, such as you have in England,
about the latter end of April or beginning of May.  In the Year 1707,
we had the severest Winter in Carolina, that ever was known
since the English came to settle there; for our Rivers,
that were not above half a Mile wide, and fresh Water, were frozen over;
and some of them, in the North-part of this Country, were passable
for People to walk over.

{No Frontier.}
One great Advantage of North-Carolina is, That we are not a Frontier,
and near the Enemy; which proves very chargeable and troublesome,
in time of War, to those Colonies that are so seated.  {Near Virginia.}
Another great Advantage comes from its being near Virginia,
where we come often to a good Market, at the Return of the Guinea-Ships
for Negro's, and the Remnant of their Stores, which is very commodious
for the Indian-Trade; besides, in War-time, we lie near at hand
to go under their Convoy, and to sell our Provisions to the Tobacco-fleets;
{Mariland.} for the Planting of Tobacco generally in those Colonies,
prevents their being supplyed with Stores, sufficient for victualling
their Ships.

{Necessaries for Carolina.}
As for the Commodities, which are necessary to carry over to this Plantation,
for Use and Merchandize, and are, therefore, requisite for those
to have along with them, that intend to transport themselves thither,
they are Guns, Powder and Shot, Flints, Linnens of all sorts,
but chiefly ordinary Blues, Osnabrugs, Scotch and Irish Linnen,
and some fine:  Mens and Womens Cloaths ready made up, some few Broad-Cloaths,
Kerseys and Druggets; to which you must add Haberdashers-Wares,
Hats about Five or Six Shillings apiece, and a few finer;
a few Wiggs, not long, and pretty thin of Hair; thin Stuffs for Women;
Iron-Work, as Nails, Spades, Axes, broad and narrow Hoes, Frows, Wedges,
and Saws of all sorts, with other Tools for Carpenters, Joiners, Coopers,
Shoemakers, Shave-locks, &c. all which, and others which are necessary
for the Plantations, you may be inform'd of, and buy at very reasonable Rates,
of Mr. James Gilbert, Ironmonger, in Mitre-Tavern-Yard, near Aldgate.
You may also be used very kindly, for your Cuttlery-Ware,
and other advantageous Merchandizes, and your Cargo's well sorted,
by Capt. Sharp, at the Blue-gate in Cannon-street; and for Earthen-Ware,
Window-Glass, Grind-Stones, Mill-Stones, Paper, Ink-Powder,
Saddles, Bridles, and what other things you are minded to take with you,
for Pleasure or Ornament.

And now, I shall proceed to the rest of the Vegetables,
that are common in Carolina, in reference to the Place where I left off,
which is the Natural History of that Country.

[The Natural History of Carolina.]

    Of the Vegetables of Carolina.

The spontaneous Shrubs of this Country, are, the Lark-heel-Tree;
three sorts of Hony-Suckle-Tree, the first of which grows in Branches,
as our Piemento-Tree does, that is, always in low, moist Ground;
the other grows in clear, dry Land, the Flower more cut and lacerated;
the third, which is the most beautiful, and, I think,
the most charming Flower of its Colour, I ever saw, grows betwixt
two and three Foot high, and for the most part, by the side of a swampy Wood,
or on the Banks of our Rivers, but never near the Salt-Water.  All the Sorts
are white; the last grows in a great Bunch of these small Hony-Suckles
set upon one chief Stem, and is commonly the Bigness of a large Turnep.
Nothing can appear more beautiful than these Bushes, when in their Splendour,
which is in April and May.  The next is the Honey-Suckle of the Forest;
it grows about a Foot high, bearing its Flowers on small Pedestals,
several of them standing on the main Stock, which is the Thickness
of a Wheat-Straw.  We have also the Wood-bind, much the same as in England;
Princes-feather, very large and beautiful in the Garden; Tres-Colores,
branch'd Sun-flower, Double Poppies, Lupines, of several pretty sorts,
spontaneous; and the Sensible Plant is said to be near the Mountains,
which I have not yet seen.  Saf-Flower; (and I believe,
the Saffron of England would thrive here, if planted) the yellow Jessamin
is wild in our Woods, of a pleasant Smell.  Ever-Greens are here
plentifully found, of a very quick Growth, and pleasant Shade;
Cypress, or white Cedar, the Pitch Pine, the yellow Pine,
the white Pine with long Leaves; and the smaller Almond-Pine, which last
bears Kernels in the Apple, tasting much like an Almond; and in some years
there falls such plenty, as to make the Hogs fat.  Horn-Beam; Cedar,
two sorts; Holly, two sorts; Bay-Tree, two sorts; one the Dwarf-Bay,
about twelve Foot high; the other the Bigness of a middling Pine-Tree,
about two Foot and half Diameter; Laurel-Trees, in Height equalizing
the lofty Oaks; the Berries and Leaves of this Tree dyes a Yellow;
the Bay-Berries yield a Wax, which besides its Use in Chirurgery,
makes Candles that, in burning, give a fragrant Smell.
The Cedar-Berries are infused, and made Beer of, by the Bermudians,
they are Carminative, and much of the Quality of Juniper-Berries;
Yew and Box I never saw or heard of in this Country:  There are
two sorts of Myrtles, different in Leaf and Berry; the Berry yields Wax
that makes Candles, the most lasting, and of the sweetest Smell imaginable.
Some mix half Tallow with this Wax, others use it without Mixture;
and these are fit for a Lady's Chamber, and incomparable
to pass the Line withal, and other hot Countries, because they will stand,
when others will melt, by the excessive Heat, down in the Binacles.
Ever-green Oak, two sorts; Gall-Berry-Tree, bearing a black Berry,
with which the Women dye their Cloaths and Yarn black;
'tis a pretty Ever-green, and very plentiful, growing always
in low swampy Grounds, and amongst Ponds.  We have a Prim or Privet,
which grows on the dry, barren, sandy Hills, by the Sound side;
it bears a smaller sort than that in England, and grows into a round Bush,
very beautiful.  {Yaupon.}  Last of Bushes, (except Savine,
which grows every where wild) is the famous Yaupon, of which I find
two sorts, if not three.  I shall speak first of the Nature of this Plant,
and afterwards account for the different Sorts.  This Yaupon,
call'd by the South-Carolina Indians, Cassena, is a Bush,
that grows chiefly on the Sand-Banks and Islands, bordering on
the Sea of Carolina; on this Coast it is plentifully found,
and in no other Place that I know of.  It grows the most like Box,
of any Vegetable that I know, being very like it in Leaf,
only dented exactly like Tea, but the Leaf somewhat fatter.
I cannot say, whether it bears any Flower, but a Berry it does,
about the Bigness of a Grain of Pepper, being first red, then brown when ripe,
which is in December; Some of these Bushes grow to be twelve Foot high,
others are three or four.  The Wood thereof is brittle as Myrtle,
and affords a light ash-colour'd Bark.  There is sometimes found of it
in Swamps and rich low Grounds, which has the same figured Leaf,
only it is larger, and of a deeper Green; This may be occasion'd
by the Richness that attends the low Grounds thus situated.
The third Sort has the same kind of Leaf, but never grows a Foot high,
and is found both in rich, low Land, and on the Sand-Hills.
I don't know that ever I found any Seed, or Berries on the dwarfish Sort,
yet I find no Difference in Taste, when Infusion is made:  Cattle and Sheep
delight in this Plant very much, and so do the Deer, all which
crop it very short, and browze thereon, wheresoever they meet with it.
I have transplanted the Sand-Bank and dwarfish Yaupon,
and find that the first Year, the Shrubs stood at a stand;
but the second Year they throve as well as in their native Soil.
This Plant is the Indian Tea, us'd and approv'd by all the Savages
on the Coast of Carolina, and from them sent to the Westward Indians,
and sold at a considerable Price.  {Curing the Yaupon.}
All which they cure after the same way, as they do for themselves;
which is thus:  They take this Plant (not only the Leaves,
but the smaller Twigs along with them) and bruise it in a Mortar,
till it becomes blackish, the Leaf being wholly defaced:
Then they take it out, put it into one of their earthen Pots
which is over the Fire, till it smoaks; stirring it all the time,
till it is cur'd.  Others take it, after it is bruis'd,
and put it into a Bowl, to which they put live Coals, and cover them
with the Yaupon, till they have done smoaking, often turning them over.
After all, they spread it upon their Mats, and dry it in the Sun
to keep for Use.  The Spaniards in New-Spain have this Plant
very plentifully on the Coast of Florida, and hold it in great Esteem.
Sometimes they cure it as the Indians do; or else beat it to a Powder,
so mix it, as Coffee; yet before they drink it, they filter the same.
They prefer it above all Liquids, to drink with Physick, to carry the same
safely and speedily thro' the Passages, for which it is admirable,
as I myself have experimented.

In the next Place, I shall speak of the Timber that Carolina affords,
which is as follows.

Chesnut-Oak, is a very lofty Tree, clear of Boughs and Limbs,
for fifty or 60 Foot.  They bear sometimes four or five Foot through
all clear Timber; and are the largest Oaks we have,
yielding the fairest Plank.  They grow chiefly in low Land,
that is stiff and rich.  I have seen of them so high,
that a good Gun could not reach a Turkey, tho' loaded with Swan-Shot.
They are call'd Chesnut, because of the Largeness and Sweetness of the Acorns.

{Scaly Oaks.}
White, Scaly-bark Oak; This is used, as the former, in building
Sloops and Ships.  Tho' it bears a large Acorn, yet it never grows
to the Bulk and Height of the Chesnut Oak.  It is so call'd,
because of a scaly, broken, white Bark, that covers this Tree,
growing on dry Land.

{Red Oak.}
We have Red Oak, sometimes, in good Land, very large, and lofty.
'Tis a porous Wood, and used to rive into Rails for Fences.
'Tis not very durable; yet some use this, as well as the two former,
for Pipe and Barrel-Staves.  It makes good Clap-boards.

{Spanish Oak.}
Spanish Oak is free to rive, bears a whitish, smooth Bark;
and rives very well into Clap-boards.  It is accounted durable,
therefore some use to build Vessels with it for the Sea;
it proving well and durable.  These all bear good Mast for the Swine.

{Bastard Spanish.}
Bastard-Spanish is an Oak betwixt the Spanish and Red Oak;
the chief Use is for Fencing and Clap-boards.  It bears good Acorns.

{Black Oak.}
The next is Black Oak, which is esteem'd a durable Wood, under Water;
but sometimes it is used in House-work.  It bears a good Mast for Hogs.

{White Iron.}
White Iron, or Ring-Oak, is so call'd, from the Durability and lasting Quality
of this Wood.  It chiefly grows on dry, lean Land, and seldom fails of bearing
a plentiful Crop of Acorns.  This Wood is found to be very durable,
and is esteem'd the best Oak for Ship-work that we have in Carolina;
for tho' Live Oak be more lasting, yet it seldom allows Planks
of any considerable Length.

{Turkey Oak.}
Turkey-Oak is so call'd from a small Acorn it bears, which the wild Turkeys
feed on.

{Live Oak.}
Live-Oak chiefly grows on dry, sandy Knolls.  This is an Ever-green,
and the most durable Oak all America affords.  The Shortness
of this Wood's Bowl, or Trunk, makes it unfit for Plank to build Ships withal.
There are some few Trees, that would allow a Stock of twelve Foot,
but the Firmness and great Weight thereof, frightens our Sawyers
from the Fatigue that attends the cutting of this Timber.
A Nail once driven therein, 'tis next to an Impossibility to draw it out.
The Limbs thereof are so cur'd, that they serve for excellent Timbers,
Knees, &c. for Vessels of any sort.  The Acorns thereof are as sweet
as Chesnuts, and the Indians draw an Oil from them, as sweet as that
from the Olive, tho' of an Amber-Colour.  With these Nuts, or Acorns,
some have counterfeited the Cocoa, whereof they have made Chocolate,
not to be distinguish'd by a good Palate.  Window-Frames, Mallets,
and Pins for Blocks, are made thereof, to an excellent Purpose.
I knew two Trees of this Wood among the Indians, which were planted
from the Acorn, and grew in the Freshes, and never saw any thing
more beautiful of that kind.  They are of an indifferent quick Growth;
of which there are two sorts.  The Acorns make very fine Pork.

{Willow Oak.}
Willow-Oak is a sort of Water-Oak.  It grows in Ponds and Branches,
and is useful for many things.  It is so call'd, from the Leaf,
which very much resembles a Willow.

{Fresh-water Oak.}
The Live Oak grows in the fresh Water Ponds and Swamps, by the River sides,
and in low Ground overflown with Water; and is a perennial Green.

Of Ash we have two sorts, agreeing nearly with the English in the Grain.
One of our sorts is tough, like the English, but differs something
in the Leaf, and much more in the Bark.  Neither of them bears Keys.
The Water-Ash is brittle.  The Bark is Food for the Bevers.

There are two sorts of Elm; the first grows on our High-Land,
and approaches our English.  The Indians take the Bark of its Root,
and beat it, whilst green, to a Pulp; and then dry it in the Chimney,
where it becomes of a reddish Colour.  This they use as a Sovereign Remedy
to heal a Cut or green Wound, or any thing that is not corrupted.
It is of a very glutinous Quality.  The other Elm grows in low Ground,
of whose Bark the English and Indians make Ropes; for as soon
as the Sap rises, it strips off, with the greatest ease imaginable.
It runs in March, or thereabouts.

The Tulip-Trees, which are, by the Planters, call'd Poplars,
as nearest approaching that Wood in Grain, grow to a prodigious Bigness,
some of them having been found One and twenty Foot in Circumference.
I have been inform'd of a Tulip-Tree, that was ten Foot Diameter;
and another, wherein a lusty Man had his Bed and Houshold Furniture,
and liv'd in it, till his Labour got him a more fashionable Mansion.
He afterwards became a noted Man, in his Country, for Wealth and Conduct.
One of these sorts bears a white Tulip; the other a party-colour'd,
mottled one.  The Wood makes very pretty Wainscot, Shingles for Houses,
and Planks for several Uses.  It is reckon'd very lasting;
especially, under Ground, for Mill-Work.  The Buds, made into an Ointment,
cure Scalds, Inflammations, and Burns.  I saw several Bushels thereon.
The Cattle are apt to eat of these Buds, which give a very odd Taste
to the Milk.

Beech is here frequent, and very large.  The Grain seems exactly the same
as that in Europe.  We make little Use thereof, save for Fire-Wood.
'Tis not a durable Timber.  It affords a very sweet Nut,
yet the Pork fed thereon (tho' sweet) is very oily, and ought to be
harden'd with Indian Corn, before it is kill'd.  {Buck Beech.}
Another sort call'd Buck-Beech is here found.

Horn-Beam grows, in some Places, very plentifully; yet the Plenty
of other Wood makes it unregarded.

The Vertues of Sassafras are well known in Europe.  This Wood
sometimes grows to be above two Foot over, and is very durable and lasting,
used for Bowls, Timbers, Posts for Houses, and other Things that require
standing in the Ground.  'Tis very light.  It bears a white Flower,
which is very cleansing to the Blood, being eaten in the Spring,
with other Sallating.  The Berry, when ripe, is black; 'tis very oily,
Carminative, and extremely prevalent in Clysters for the Colick.
The Bark of the Root is a Specifick to those afflicted with the Gripes.
The same in Powder, and a Lotion made thereof, is much used by the Savages,
to mundify old Ulcers, and for several other Uses; being highly esteem'd
among them.

Dog-Wood is plentiful on our light Land, inclining to a rich Soil.
It flowers the first in the Woods; its white Blossom making the Forest
very beautiful.  It has a fine Grain, and serves for several Uses
within doors; but is not durable.  The Bark of this Root infused,
is held an infallible Remedy against the Worms.

Laurel, before-mention'd; as to its Bigness and Use, I have seen Planks
sawn of this Wood; but 'tis not found durable in the Weather;
yet pretty enough for many other Uses.

Bay and Laurel generally delight in a low, swampy Ground.  I know no Use
they make of them, but for Fire-Wood, excepting what I spoke of before,
amongst the Ever-Greens.

A famous Ever-Green I must now mention, which was forgotten amongst the rest.
It is in Leaf like a Jessamine, but larger, and of a harder Nature.
This grows up to a large Vine, and twists itself round the Trees
it grows near, making a very fine Shade.  I never saw any thing of that Nature
outdo it, and if it be cut away close to the Ground, it will presently
spring up again, it being impossible to destroy it, when once it has got Root.
'Tis an ornamental Plant, and worth the Transplanting.  Its Seed
is a black Berry.

The Scarlet Trumpet-Vine bears a glorious red Flower, like a Bell, or Trumpet,
and makes a Shade inferiour to none that I ever saw; yet it leaves us,
when the Winter comes, and remains naked till the next Spring.
It bears a large Cod, that holds its Seed.

The Maycock bears a glorious Flower, and Apple of an agreeable Sweet,
mixt with an acid Taste.  This is also a Summer-Vine.

The Indico grows plentifully in our Quarters.

The Bay-Tulip-Tree is a fine Ever-green which grows frequently here.

{Sweet Gum.}
The sweet Gum-Tree, so call'd, because of the fragrant Gum it yields
in the Spring-time, upon Incision of the Bark, or Wood.  It cures
the Herpes and Inflammations; being apply'd to the Morphew and Tettars.
'Tis an extraordinary Balsam, and of great Value to those
who know how to use it.  No Wood has scarce a better Grain;
whereof fine Tables, Drawers, and other Furniture might be made.
Some of it is curiously curl'd.  It bears a round Bur, with a sort of Prickle,
which is the Seed.

{Black Gums.}
Of the Black Gum there grows, with us, two sorts; both fit for Cart-Naves.
The one bears a black, well-tasted Berry, which the Indians mix
with their Pulse and Soups, it giving 'em a pretty Flavour,
and scarlet Colour.  The Bears crop these Trees for the Berries,
which they mightily covet, yet kill'd in that Season, they eat very unsavory;
which must be occasion'd by this Fruit, because, at other times,
when they feed on Mast, Bears-Flesh is a very well-tasted Food.
The other Gum bears a Berry in shape like the other,
tho' bitter and ill-tasted.  This Tree (the Indians report)
is never wounded by Lightning.  It has no certain Grain;
and it is almost impossible to split or rive it.

{White Gum.}
The white Gum, bearing a sort of long bunch'd Flowers,
is the most curled and knotted Wood I ever saw, which would make
curious Furniture, in case it was handled by a good Workman.

{Red Cedar.}
The red sort of Cedar is an Ever-green, of which Carolina affords Plenty.
That on the Salts, grows generally on the Sand-banks; and that in the Freshes
is found in the Swamps.  Of this Wood, Tables, Wainscot,
and other Necessaries, are made, and esteemed for its sweet Smell.
It is as durable a Wood as any we have, therefore much used
in Posts for Houses and Sills; likewise to build Sloops,
Boats, &c. by reason the Worm will not touch it, for several Years.
The Vessels built thereof are very durable, and good Swimmers.
Of this Cedar, Ship-loads may be exported.  It has been heretofore
so plentiful in this Settlement, that they have fenced in Plantations with it,
and the Coffins of the Dead are generally made thereof.

{White Cedar.}
White Cedar, so call'd, because it nearly approaches the other Cedar,
in Smell, Bark, and Leaf; only this grows taller, being as strait as an Arrow.
It is extraordinary light, and free to rive.  'Tis good for Yard, Top-Masts,
Booms and Boltsprits, being very tough.  The best Shingles for Houses
are made of this Wood, it being no Strain to the Roof, and never rots.
Good Pails and other Vessels, free from Leakage, are likewise made thereof.
The Bark of this and the red Cedar, the Indians use to make their Cabins of,
which prove firm, and resist all Weathers.

Cypress is not an Ever-green with us, and is therefore call'd
the bald Cypress, because the Leaves, during the Winter-Season, turn red,
not recovering their Verdure till the Spring.  These Trees are the largest
for Height and Thickness, that we have in this Part of the World;
some of them holding thirty-six Foot in Circumference.  Upon Incision,
they yield a sweet-smelling Grain, tho' not in great Quantities; and the Nuts
which these Trees bear plentifully, yield a most odoriferous Balsam,
that infallibly cures all new and green Wounds, which the Inhabitants
are well acquainted withal.  Of these great Trees the Pereaugers and Canoes
are scoop'd and made; which sort of Vessels are chiefly
to pass over the Rivers, Creeks, and Bays; and to transport Goods and Lumber
from one River to another.  Some are so large, as to carry thirty Barrels,
tho' of one entire Piece of Timber.  Others, that are split down the Bottom,
and a piece added thereto, will carry eighty, or an hundred.
Several have gone out of our Inlets on the Ocean to Virginia,
laden with Pork, and other Produce of the Country.  Of these Trees
curious Boats for Pleasure may be made, and other necessary Craft.
Some Years ago, a foolish Man in Albemarl and his Son,
had got one of these Canoes deck'd.  She held, as I take it, sixteen Barrels.
He brought her to the Collectors, to be clear'd for Barbados;
but the Officer took him for a Man that had lost his Senses,
and argu'd the Danger and Impossibility of performing such a Voyage,
in a hollow Tree; but the Fellow would hearken to no Advice of that kind,
till the Gentleman told him, if he did not value his own Life,
he valu'd his Reputation and Honesty, and so flatly refus'd clearing him;
Upon which, the Canoe was sold, and, I think, remains in being still.
This Wood is very lasting, and free from the Rot.  A Canoe of it
will outlast four Boats, and seldom wants Repair.  They say,
that a Chest made of this Wood, will suffer no Moth, or Vermine,
to abide therein.

{Two sorts of Locust white and yellow, is rare if varnish'd.}
The Locust, for its enduring the Weather, is chosen for all sorts of Works
that are exposed thereto.  It bears a Leaf nearest the Liquorice-Plant.
'Tis a pretty tall Tree.  Of this the Indians make their choicest Bows,
it being very tough and flexible.  We have little or none of this Wood
in Pampticough.

{Honey Tree a Locust.}
The Honey-Tree bears as great a Resemblance to the Locust,
as a Shallot does to an Onion.  It is of that Species, but more prickly.
They bear a Cod, one side whereof contains the Seed, the other the Honey;
They will bear in five Years, from the Kernel.  They were first brought
(by the Indian Traders) and propagated, by their Seed,
at the Apamaticks in Virginia.  Last Year, I planted the Seed,
and had them sprung up before I came from thence, which was in August.
Of the Honey, very good Metheglin is made, there being Orchards
planted in Virginia for that intent.

{Sowr Wood.}
The Sorrel, or Sowr-Wood-Tree, is so call'd, because the Leaves
taste like Sorrel.  Some are about a Foot or ten Inches Diameter.
I am unacquainted with its Vertues at present.

Of Pines, there are, in Carolina, at least, four sorts.  The Pitch-Pine,
growing to a great Bigness, most commonly has but a short Leaf.
Its Wood (being replete with abundance of Bitumen) is so durable,
that it seems to suffer no Decay, tho' exposed to all Weathers, for many Ages;
and is used in several Domestick and Plantation Uses.  This Tree affords
the four great Necessaries, Pitch, Tar, Rozin, and Turpentine;
which two last are extracted by tapping, and the Heat of the Sun,
the other two by the Heat of the Fire.

The white and yellow Pines are saw'd into Planks for several Uses.
They make Masts, Yards, and a great many other Necessaries therewith,
the Pine being the most useful Tree in the Woods.

The Almond-Pine serves for Masts very well.  As for the Dwarf-Pine,
it is for Shew alone, being an Ever-green, as they all are.

{Hiccory the best Fire-wood.}
The Hiccory is of the Walnut-kind, and bears a Nut as they do,
of which there are found three sorts.  The first is that
which we call the common white Hiccory.  It is not a durable Wood;
for if cut down, and exposed to the Weather, it will be quite rotten,
and spoil'd in three Years; as will likewise the Beech of this Country.
Hiccory Nuts have very hard Shells, but excellent sweet Kernels,
with which, in a plentiful Year, the old Hogs, that can crack them,
fatten themselves, and make excellent Pork.  These Nuts are gotten,
in great Quantities, by the Savages, and laid up for Stores,
of which they make several Dishes and Banquets.  One of these
I cannot forbear mentioning; it is this:  They take these Nuts,
and break them very small betwixt two Stones, till the Shells and Kernels
are indifferent small; And this Powder you are presented withal
in their Cabins, in little wooden Dishes; the Kernel dissolves in your Mouth,
and the Shell is spit out.  This tastes as well as any Almond.
Another Dish is the Soup which they make of these Nuts, beaten,
and put into Venison-Broth, which dissolves the Nut, and thickens,
whilst the Shell precipitates, and remains at the bottom.
This Broth tastes very rich.  {Red Hiccory.}  There is another sort,
which we call red Hiccory, the Heart thereof being very red,
firm and durable; of which Walking-Sticks, Mortars, Pestils,
and several other fine Turnery-wares are made.  The third is call'd
the Flying-bark'd Hiccory, from its brittle and scaly Bark.
It bears a Nut with a bitter Kernel and a soft Shell, like a French Walnut.
Of this Wood, Coggs for Mills are made, &c.  The Leaves smell very fragrant.

The Walnut-Tree of America is call'd Black Walnut.  I suppose,
that Name was, at first, to distinguish it from the Hiccories,
it having a blacker Bark.  This Tree grows, in good Land,
to a prodigious Bigness.  The Wood is very firm and durable,
of which Tables and Chests of Drawers are made, and prove very well.
Some of this is very knotty, which would make the best Returns for England,
tho' the Masters of Vessels refuse it, not understanding its Goodness.
'Tis a very good and durable Wood, to bottom Vessels for the Sea withal;
and they say, that it is never eaten by the Worm.  The Nuts have
a large Kernel, which is very oily, except lain by, a long time, to mellow.
The Shell is very thick, as all the native Nuts of America are.
When it has its yellow outward Coat on, it looks and smells much like a Lemon.

The Maple, of which we have two sorts, is used to make Trenchers,
Spinning-wheels, &c. withal.

Chinkapin is a sort of Chesnut, whose Nuts are most commonly very plentiful;
insomuch that the Hogs get fat with them.  They are rounder and smaller
than a Chesnut, but much sweeter.  The Wood is much of the Nature of Chesnut,
having a Leaf and Grain almost like it.  It is used to timber Boats,
Shallops, &c. and makes any thing that is to endure the Weather.
This and the Hiccory are very tough Rods used to whip Horses withal;
yet their Wood, in Substance, is very brittle.  This Tree
the Vine much delights to twist about.  It's good Fire-Wood,
but very sparkling, as well as Sassafras.

The Birch grows all on the Banks of our Rivers, very high up.
I never saw a Tree on the Salts.  It differs something, in Bark,
from the European Birch.  Its Buds in April are eaten by the Parrakeetos,
which resort, from all Parts, at that Season, to feed thereon.
Where this Wood grows, we are not yet seated; and as to the Wine,
or other Profits it would yield, we are, at present, Strangers to.

The Willow, here, likewise differs both in Bark and Leaf.  It is frequently
found on the Banks of fresh Water, as the Birch is.

The Sycamore, in these Parts, grows in a low, swampy Land, by River-sides.
Its Bark is quite different from the English, and the most beautiful
I ever saw, being mottled and clowded with several Colours,
as white, blue, &c.  It bears no Keys but a Bur like the sweet Gum.
Its Uses I am ignorant of.

I never saw any Aspin, but in Rapahannock-River, from whence I brought one,
(that was presented me there as a great Present) but it died by the way.

Of Holly we have two sorts; one having a large Leaf, the other a smaller.
They grow very thick in our low Woods.  Many of them are very strait,
and two Foot Diameter.  They make good Trenchers, and other Turnery-Ware.

The Red-Bud-Tree bears a purple Lark-Heel, and is the best Sallad,
of any Flower I ever saw.  It is ripe in April and May.
They grow in Trees, generally small, but some are a Foot Diameter.

Pelletory grows on the Sand-Banks and Islands.  It is used
to cure the Tooth-ach, by putting a Piece of the Bark in the Mouth,
which being very hot, draws a Rhume from the Mouth, and causes much Spittle.
The Indians use it to make their Composition, which they give
to their young Men and Boys, when they are husquenaw'd, of which you shall
hear farther, when I come to treat of the Customs, &c. of that People.

Arrow-Wood, growing on the Banks, is used, by the Indians,
for Arrows and Gun-Sticks.  It grows as strait, as if plain'd,
and is of all Sizes.  'Tis as tough and pliable, as the smallest Canes.

The Chesnut-Tree of Carolina, grows up towards the hilly Part thereof,
is a very large and durable Wood, and fit for House-Frames, Palisado's,
Sills, and many other Uses.  The Nut is smaller than those from Portugal,
but sweeter.

This is no Tree, but call'd the Oak-Vine, by reason it bears a sort of Bur
as the Oak does, and generally runs up those Trees.  It's so porous,
that you suck Liquors thro' a Length of two Foot.

Prickly-Ash grows up like a Pole; of which the Indians and English
make Poles to set their Canoes along in Shoal-Water.  It's very light,
and full of Thorns or Prickles, bearing Berries in large Clusters,
of a purple Colour, not much unlike the Alder.  The Root of this Tree
is Cathartick and Emetick, used in Cachexies.

{Poison Vine.}
The Poison Vine is so called, because it colours the Hands of those
who handle it.  What the Effects of it may be, I cannot relate;
neither do I believe, that any has made an Experiment thereof.
The Juice of this will stain Linnen, never to wash out.  It marks
a blackish blue Colour, which is done only by breaking a bit of the Vine off,
and writing what you please therewith.  I have thought,
that the East-India Natives set their Colours, by some such Means,
into their finest Callicoes.  It runs up any Tree it meets withal,
and clasps round about it.  The Leaves are like Hemlock,
and fall off in Winter.

{Canes and Reeds.}
Of Canes and Reeds we have many sorts.  The hollow Reed, or Cane,
such as Angling-Rods are made of, and Weavers use, we have great Plenty of,
though none to the Northward of James-River in Virginia.
They always grow in Branches and low Ground.  Their Leaves endure the Winter,
in which Season our Cattle eat them greedily.  We have them
(towards the Heads of our Rivers) so large, that one Joint will hold
above a pint of Liquor.

The small Bamboo is next, which is a certain Vine, like the rest
of these Species, growing in low Land.  They seldom, with us,
grow thicker than a Man's little Finger, and are very tough.
Their Root is a round Ball, which the Indians boil as we do Garden-Roots,
and eat them.  When these Roots have been some time out of the Ground,
they become hard, and make good Heads to the Canes, on which
several pretty Figures may be cut.  There are several others of this kind,
not thoroughly discover'd.

That Palmeto grows with us, which we call the dwarfish sort;
but the Palmeto-Tree I have not yet met withal in North-Carolina,
of which you have a Description elsewhere.  We shall next treat
of the Spontaneous Fruits of this Country; and then proceed to those
that have been transplanted from Europe, and other Parts.

{Natural Vines.}
Among the natural Fruits, the Vine first takes place, of which
I find six sorts, very well known.  {Bunch-Grapes.}  The first
is the black Bunch-Grapes, which yield a Crimson Juice.
These grow common, and bear plentifully.  They are of a good Relish,
though not large, yet well knit in the Clusters.  They have a thickish Skin,
and large Stone, which makes them not yield much Juice.
There is another sort of Black-Grapes like the former, in all respects,
save that their Juice is of a light Flesh-Colour, inclining to a White.
I once saw a Spontaneous white Bunch-Grape in Carolina;
but the Cattle browzing on the Sprouts thereof in the Spring, it died.
{Fox-Grapes.}  Of those which we call Fox-Grapes, we have four sorts;
two whereof are called Summer-Grapes, because ripe in July;
the other two Winter-Fruit, because not ripe till September or October.
The Summer Fox-Grapes grow not in Clusters, or great Bunches,
but are about five or six in a Bunch, about the Bigness of a Damson,
or larger.  The black sort are frequent, the white not so commonly found.
They always grow in Swamps, and low moist Lands, running sometimes very high,
and being shady, and therefore proper for Arbours.  They afford
the largest Leaf I ever saw, to my remembrance, the Back of which
is of a white Horse-flesh Colour.  This Fruit always ripens in the Shade.
I have transplanted them into my Orchard, and find they thrive well,
if manured:  A Neighbour of mine has done the same; mine were by Slips,
his from the Roots, which thrive to Admiration, and bear Fruit,
tho' not so juicy as the European Grape, but of a glutinous Nature.
However, it is pleasant enough to eat.

The other Winter Fox-Grapes, are much of the same Bigness.
These refuse no Ground, swampy or dry, but grow plentifully
on the Sand-Hills along the Sea-Coast, and elsewhere, and are great Bearers.
I have seen near twelve Bushels upon one Vine of the black sort.
Some of these, when thoroughly ripe, have a very pretty vinous Taste,
and eat very well, yet are glutinous.  The white sort
are clear and transparent, and indifferent small Stones.
Being removed by the Slip or Root, they thrive well in our Gardens,
and make pleasant Shades.

Persimmon is a Tree, that agrees with all Lands and Soils.
Their Fruit, when ripe, is nearest our Medlar; if eaten before,
draws your Mouth up like a Purse, being the greatest Astringent
I ever met withal, therefore very useful in some Cases.  The Fruit, if ripe,
will presently cleanse a foul Wound, but causes Pain.  The Fruit is rotten,
when ripe, and commonly contains four flat Kernels, call'd Stones,
which is the Seed.  'Tis said, the Cortex Peruvianus comes
from a Persimmon-Tree, that grows in New-Spain.  I have try'd
the Drying of this Bark, to imitate it, which it does tolerably well,
and agrees therewith.  It is binding enough to work the same Effect.
The Tree, in extraordinary Land, comes sometimes to two Foot Diameter,
though not often.  There are two sorts of this Fruit; one ripe in Summer,
the other when the Frost visits us.

We have three sorts of Mulberries, besides the different Bigness
of some Trees Fruit.  The first is the common red Mulberry,
whose Fruit is the earliest we have, (except the Strawberries) and very sweet.
These Trees make a very fine Shade, to sit under in Summer-time.
They are found wild in great Quantities, wherever the Land is light and rich;
yet their Fruit is much better when they stand open.  They are used
instead of Raisins and Currants, and make several pretty Kickshaws.
They yield a transparent Crimson Liquor, which would make good Wine;
but few Peoples Inclinations in this Country tend that way.
The others are a smooth-leav'd Mulberry, fit for the Silk-Worm.
One bears a white Fruit, which is common; the other bears a small black Berry,
very sweet.  They would persuade me there, that the black Mulberry
with the Silk-Worm smooth Leaf, was a white Mulberry, and changed its Fruit.
The Wood hereof is very durable, and where the Indians cannot get Locust,
they make use of this to make their Bows.  This Tree grows
extraordinary round and pleasant to the Eye.

The Hiccory, Walnut, Chinkapin and Chesnut, with their Fruits,
we have mention'd before.

The Hazle-Nut grows plentifully in some places of this Country;
especially, towards the Mountains; but ours are not so good
as the English Nuts, having a much thicker Shell (like all
the Fruits of America, that I ever met withal) which in Hardness
exceeds those of Europe.

The Cherries of the Woods grow to be very large Trees.  One sort,
which is rarely found, is red, and not much unlike the Cornel-Berry.
But the common Cherry grows high, and in Bunches, like English Currants,
but much larger.  They are of a bitterish sweet Relish,
and are equally valuable with our small Black-Cherries,
for an Infusion in Spirits.  They yield a crimson Liquor,
and are great Bearers.

Our Rasberries are of a purple Colour, and agreeable Relish,
almost like the English; but I reckon them not quite so rich.
When once planted, 'tis hard to root them out.  They run wild
all over the Country, and will bear the same Year you transplant them,
as I have found by Experience.

The Hurts, Huckle-Berries, or Blues of this Country, are four sorts,
which we are well acquainted withal; but more Species of this sort,
and all others, Time and Enquiry must discover.  The first sort is
the same Blue or Bilberry, that grows plentifully in the North of England,
and in other Places, commonly on your Heaths, Commons, and Woods,
where Brakes or Fern grows.

The second sort grows on a small Bush in our Savannas and Meads,
and in the Woods.  They are larger than the common Fruit,
and have larger Seed.

The third grows on the single Stem of a Stick that grows in low good Land,
and on the Banks of Rivers.  They grow three or four Foot high,
and are very pleasant like the first sort, but larger.

The fourth sort grows upon Trees, some ten and twelve Foot high,
and the Thickness of a Man's Arm; these are found in the Runs and low Grounds,
and are very pleasant, and bear wonderfully.  The English sometimes
dry them in the Sun, and keep them to use in the Winter,
instead of Currants.  The Indians get many Bushels, and dry them on Mats,
whereof they make Plum-Bread, and many other Eatables.
They are good in Tarts, or infused in Liquors.

In the same Ground, commonly grows the Piemento, or All-Spice-Tree,
whose Berries differ in shape from those in the West-Indies,
being Taper or Conick, yet not inferiour, to any of that sort.
This Tree grows much like the Hurts, and is of the same Bigness.
I have known it transplanted to high Land, where it thrives.

{Dews.  Black-Berries.}
Our Dew-Berries are very good.  But the Black-Berries are bitterish,
and not so palatable, as in England.

{Sugar Tree.}
The Sugar-Tree ought to have taken place before.  It is found
in no other parts of Carolina or America, that I ever learnt,
but in Places that are near the Mountains.  It's most like one sort of Maple,
of any Tree, and may be rank'd amongst that kind.  This Tree,
which, I am told, is of a very tedious Growth, is found very plentifully
towards the Heads of some of our Rivers.  The Indians tap it,
and make Gourds to receive the Liquor, which Operation is done
at distinct and proper times, when it best yields its Juice,
of which, when the Indians have gotten enough, they carry it home,
and boil it to a just Consistence of Sugar, which grains of itself,
and serves for the same Uses, as other Sugar does.

The Papau is not a large Tree.  I think, I never saw one a Foot through;
but has the broadest Leaf of any Tree in the Woods, and bears an Apple
about the Bigness of a Hen's Egg, yellow, soft, and as sweet,
as any thing can well be.  They make rare Puddings of this Fruit.
The Apple contains a large Stone.

{Wild Fig.}
The wild Fig grows in Virginia, up in the Mountains, as I am inform'd
by a Gentleman of my acquaintance, who is a Person of Credit,
and a great Traveller in America.  I shall be glad to have an Opportunity
to make Tryal what Improvement might be made of this wild Fruit.

{Plum red.}
The wild Plums of America are of several sorts.  Those which I can give
an account of from my own Knowledge, I will, and leave the others
till a farther Discovery.  The most frequent is that which we call
the common Indian Plum, of which there are two sorts, if not more.
One of these is ripe much sooner than the other, and differs in the Bark;
one of the Barks being very scaly, like our American Birch.
These Trees, when in Blossom, smell as sweet as any Jessamine,
and look as white as a Sheet, being something prickly.  You may make it grow
to what Shape you please; they are very ornamental about a House,
and make a wonderful fine Shew at a Distance, in the Spring,
because of their white Livery.  Their Fruit is red, and very palatable
to the sick.  They are of a quick Growth, and will bear from the Stone
in five Years, on their Stock.  The English large black Plum thrives well,
as does the Cherry, being grafted thereon.

{Damsons of America.}
The American Damsons are both black and white, and about the Bigness of
an European Damson.  They grow any where, if planted from the Stone or Slip;
bear a white Blossom, and are a good Fruit.  They are found on the Sand-Banks
all along the Coast of America.  I have planted several in my Orchard,
that came from the Stone, which thrive well amongst the rest of my Trees.
But they never grow to the Bigness of the other Trees now spoken of.
These are plentiful Bearers.

There is a third sort of Plum about the Bigness of the Damson.
The Tree is taller, seldom exceeding ten Inches in Thickness.
The Plum seems to taste physically, yet I never found any Operation it had,
except to make their Lips sore, that eat them.  The Wood is something porous,
but exceeds any Box, for a beautiful Yellow.

{Winter Currant.}
There is a very pretty, bushy Tree, about seven or eight Foot high,
very spreading, which bears a Winter-Fruit, that is ripe in October.
They call 'em Currants, but they are nearer a Hurt.  I have eaten
very pretty Tarts made thereof.  They dry them instead of Currants.
This Bush is very beautiful.

{Bermudas Currants.}
The Bermudas Currants grow in the Woods on a Bush, much like
the European Currant.  Some People eat them very much; but for my part,
I can see nothing inviting in them, and reckon them a very indifferent Fruit.

{April Currants.}
We have another Currant, which grows on the Banks of Rivers,
or where only Clay hath been thrown up.  This Fruit is red,
and gone almost as soon as come.  They are a pretty Fruit
whilst they last, and the Tree (for 'tis not a Bush) they grow upon,
is a very pleasant Vegetable.

{Red Haws.}
The Haw-thorn grows plentifully in some parts of this Country.
The Haws are quite different from those in England, being four times as big,
and of a very pleasant agreeable Taste.  We make no use of this Plant,
nor any other, for Hedges, because Timber is so plentiful at present.
In my Judgment, the Honey-Locust would be the fittest for Hedges;
because it is very apt to shoot forth many Sprouts and Succours
from the Roots; besides, it is of a quick Growth, and very prickly.

The Black Haw grows on a slender Tree, about the Height of a Quince-Tree,
or something higher, and bears the black Haw, which People eat,
and the Birds covet also.  What Vertues the Fruit or Wood is of,
I cannot resolve you, at present.

Thus have I given an Account of all the Spontaneous Fruits of Carolina,
that have come to my Knowledge, excepting Services, which I have seen
in the Indians Hands, and eat of them, but never saw,
how nor where they grew.  There may very well be expected
a great many more Fruits, which are the natural Product of this Country,
when we consider the Fruitfulness of the Soil and Climate,
and account for the vast Tract of Land, (great part of which
is not yet found out) according to the Product of that which
is already discover'd, which (as I once hinted before) is not as yet
arriv'd to our Knowledge, we having very little or no Correspondence
amongst the mountainous Parts of this Province, and towards
the Country of Messiasippi, all which we have strange Accounts of,
and some very large ones, with respect to the different and noble Fruits,
and several other Ornaments and Blessings of Nature which
Messiasippi possesses; more to be coveted, than any of those we enjoy,
to the Eastward of the Mountains:  Yet when I came to discourse
some of the Idolizers of that Country, I found it to be rather Novelty,
than Truth and Reality, that induced those Persons to allow it
such Excellencies above others.  It may be a brave and fertile Country,
as I believe it is; but I cannot be persuaded, that it can be
near so advantageous as ours, which is much better situated for Trade,
being faced all along with the Ocean, as the English America is;
when the other is only a direct River, in the midst of a wild unknown Land,
greatest part of whose Product must be fetch'd, or brought a great way,
before it can come to a Market.  Moreover, such great Rivers
commonly allow of more Princes Territories than one; and thus nothing
but War and Contention accompanies the Inhabitants thereof.

But not to trouble our Readers with any more of this, we will proceed,
in the next place, to shew, what Exotick Fruits we have, that thrive well
in Carolina; and what others, it may reasonably be suppos'd, would do there,
were they brought thither and planted.  In pursuance of which,
I will set down a Catalogue of what Fruits we have; I mean Species:
For should I pretend to give a regular Name to every one;
it's neither possible for me to do it, nor for any one to understand it,
when done; if we consider, that the chiefest part of our Fruit came
from the Kernel, and some others from the Succours, or Sprouts of the Tree.
First, we will begin with Apples; which are the
    Golden Russet.
    Pearmain  | Winter.
              | Summer.
    Harvey-Apple, I cannot tell, whether the same as in England.
    Winter Queening.
    Leather Coat.

The Golden Russet thrives well.

The Pearmains, of both sorts, are apt to speck, and rot on the Trees;
and the Trees are damaged and cut off by the Worm, which breeds in the Forks,
and other parts thereof; and often makes a Circumposition,
by destroying the Bark round the Branches, till it dies.

Harvey-Apple; that which we call so, is esteem'd very good to make Cider of.

Winter Queening is a durable Apple, and makes good Cider.

Leather-Coat; both Apple and Tree stand well.

The Juniting is early ripe, and soon gone, in these warm Countries.

Codlin; no better, and fairer Fruit in the World; yet the Tree suffers
the same Distemper, as the Pearmains, or rather worse; the Trees always dying
before they come to their Growth.

The Redstreak thrives very well.

Long-stalk is a large Apple, with a long Stalk, and makes good Summer Cider.

We beat the first of our Codlin Cider, against reaping our Wheat,
which is from the tenth of June, to the five and twentieth.

Lady-Finger, the long Apple, the same as in England, and full as good.
We have innumerable sorts; some call'd Rope-Apples which are small Apples,
hanging like Ropes of Onions; Flattings, Grigsons, Cheese-Apples,
and a great number of Names, given according to every ones Discretion.

The Warden-Pear here proves a good eating Pear; and is not so long ripening
as in England.

Katharine excellent.


And several others without Name, The Bergamot we have not,
nor either of the Bonne Chrestiennes, though I hear, they are all three
in Virginia.  Those sorts of Pears which we have, are as well relisht,
as ever I eat any where; but that Fruit is of very short Continuance with us,
for they are gone almost as soon as ripe.

I am not a Judge of the different sorts of Quinces, which they call
Brunswick, Portugal, and Barbary; But as to the Fruit, in general,
I believe no Place has fairer and better relisht.  They are very pleasant
eaten raw.  Of this Fruit, they make a Wine, or Liquor,
which they call Quince-Drink, and which I approve of beyond any Drink
which that Country affords, though a great deal of Cider and some Perry
is there made.  The Quince-Drink most commonly purges those
that first drink it, and cleanses the Body very well.
The Argument of the Physicians, that they bind People, is hereby contradicted,
unless we allow the Quinces to differ in the two Countries.
The least Slip of this Tree stuck in the Ground, comes to bear in three years.

All Peaches, with us, are standing; neither have we any Wall-Fruit
in Carolina; for we have Heat enough, and therefore do not require it.
We have a great many sorts of this Fruit, which all thrive to Admiration,
Peach-Trees coming to Perfection (with us) as easily as the Weeds.
A Peach falling on the Ground, brings a Peach-Tree that shall bear
in three years, or sometimes sooner.  Eating Peaches in our Orchards
makes them come up so thick from the Kernel, that we are forced
to take a great deal of Care to weed them out; otherwise they make our Land
a Wilderness of Peach-Trees.  They generally bear so full,
that they break great part of their Limbs down.  We have likewise
very fair Nectarines, especially the red, that clings to the Stone,
the other yellow Fruit, that leaves the Stone; of the last,
I have a Tree, that, most Years, brings me fifteen or twenty Bushels.
I see no Foreign Fruit like this, for thriving in all sorts of Land,
and bearing its Fruit to Admiration.  I want to be satisfy'd about
one sort of this Fruit, which the Indians claim as their own, and affirm,
they had it growing amongst them, before any Europeans came to America.
The Fruit I will describe, as exactly as I can.  The Tree grows very large,
most commonly as big as a handsome Apple-tree; the Flowers are of a reddish,
murrey Colour; the Fruit is rather more downy, than the yellow Peach,
and commonly very large and soft, being very full of Juice.
They part freely from the Stone, and the Stone is much thicker
than all the other Peach Stones we have, which seems to me,
that it is a Spontaneous Fruit of America; yet in those Parts of America
that we inhabit, I never could hear that any Peach-Trees were ever found
growing in the Woods; neither have the foreign Indians, that live remote
from the English, any other sort.  And those living amongst us
have a hundred of this sort for one other; they are a hardy Fruit,
and are seldom damaged by the North-East Blasts, as others are.
Of this sort we make Vinegar; wherefore we call them Vinegar-Peaches,
and sometimes Indian-Peaches.

This Tree grows to a vast Bigness, exceeding most Apple-Trees.
They bear well, tho' sometimes an early Spring comes on in February,
and perhaps, when the Tree is fully blown the Cloudy North-East-Winds
which attend the end of, that Month, or the beginning of March,
destroy most of the Fruit.  The biggest Apricock-Tree I ever saw,
as they told me, was grafted on a Peach-Stock, in the Ground.
I know of no other sort with us, than the Common.  We generally
raise this Fruit from the Stone, which never fails to bring the same Fruit.
Likewise our Peach-Stones effect the same, without so much as once missing,
to produce the same sort that the Stone came from.

Damson, Damazeen, and a large round black Plum are all I have met withal
in Carolina.  They thrive well enough; the last to Admiration,
and becomes a very large Tree, if in stiff Ground; otherwise they will not
do well.

Of Figs we have two sorts; One is the low Bush-Fig, which bears a large Fruit.
If the Winter happens to have much Frost, the tops thereof die,
and in the Spring sprout again, and bear two or three good Crops.

The Tree-Fig is a lesser Fig, though very sweet.  The Tree grows
to a large Body and Shade, and generally brings a good Burden;
especially, if in light Land.  This Tree thrives no where better,
than on the Sand-Banks by the Sea.

We have the common red and black Cherry, which bear well.
I never saw any grafted in this Country, the common excepted,
which was grafted on an Indian Plum-stock, and bore well.
This is a good way, because our common Cherry-Trees are very apt
to put Scions all round the Tree, for a great Distance, which must needs be
prejudicial to the Tree and Fruit.  Not only our Cherries are apt to do so,
but our Apples and most other Fruit-Trees, which may chiefly be imputed
to the Negligence and Unskilfulness of the Gardener.  Our Cherries are ripe
a Month sooner than in Virginia.

Goosberries I have seen of the smaller sort, but find they do not do so well
as in England, and to the Northward.  Want of Dressing may be
some Reason for this.

Currants, White, Red, and Black, thrive here, as well as any where.

Rasberries, the red and white, I never saw any Trial made of.
But there is no doubt of their thriving to Admiration,
since those of the Country do so well.

The Mulberries are spontaneous.  We have no others, than what I have
already mentioned in the Class of Natural Fruits of Carolina.

Barberry red, with Stones, and without Stones, grow here.

Strawberries, not Foreign, but those of the Country, grow here
in great Plenty.  Last April I planted a Bed of two hundred Foot in Length,
which bore the same Year.

Medlars we have none.

All sorts of Walnuts from England, France, and Maderas,
thrive well from the Nut.

No Filberts, but Hazle-Nuts; the Filbert-Nut planted,
becomes a good Hazle-Nut, and no better.

As for that noble Vegetable the Vine, without doubt, it may
(in this Country) be improved, and brought to the same Perfection,
as it is, at this Day, in the same Latitude in Europe,
since the chiefest part of this Country is a deep, rich, black Mould,
which is up towards the Freshes and Heads of our Rivers,
being very rich and mix'd with Flint, Pebbles, and other Stones.
And this sort of Soil is approv'd of (by all knowing Gardeners and Vigneroons)
as a proper Earth, in which the Grape chiefly delights; and what seems
to give a farther Confirmation hereof, is, that the largest Vines,
that were ever discover'd to grow wild, are found in those Parts,
oftentimes in such Plenty, and are so interwoven with one another,
that 'tis impossible to pass through them.  Moreover, in these Freshes,
towards the Hills, the Vines are above five times bigger than those
generally with us, who are seated in the Front-parts of this Country,
adjoining to the Salts.  Of the wild Vines, which are most of them
great Bearers, some Wine has been made, which I drank of.
It was very strong and well relisht; but what detains them all from offering
at great quantities, they add, that this Grape has a large Stone,
and a thick Skin, and consequently yields but a small Quantity of Wine.
Some Essays of this Nature have been made by that Honourable Knight,
Sir Nathanael Johnson, in South Carolina, who, as I am inform'd,
has rejected all Exotick Vines, and makes his Wine from the natural
black Grape of Carolina, by grafting it upon its own Stock.
What Improvement this may arrive to, I cannot tell; but in other Species,
I own Grafting and Imbudding yields speedy Fruit, tho' I never found
that it made them better.

New planted Colonies are generally attended with a Force and Necessity
of Planting the known and approved Staple and Product of the Country,
as well as all the Provisions their Families spend.  Therefore we
can entertain but small hopes of the Improvement of the Vine,
till some skilful in dressing Vines shall appear amongst us,
and go about it, with a Resolution, that Ordering the Vineyard
shall be one half of their Employment.  If this be begun and carried on,
with that Assiduity and Resolution which it requires,
then we may reasonably hope to see this a Wine-Country;
for then, when it becomes a general Undertaking, every one will be capable
to add something to the common Stock, of that which he has gain'd
by his own Experience.  This way would soon make the Burden light,
and a great many shorter and exacter Curiosities, and real Truths
would be found out in a short time.  The trimming of Vines,
as they do in France, that is, to a Stump, must either here be not follow'd,
or we are not sensible of the exact time, when they ought to be thus pruned;
for Experience has taught us, that the European Grape,
suffer'd to run and expand itself at large, has been found to bear
as well in America, as it does in Europe; when, at the same time,
the same sort of Vine trimm'd to a Stump, as before spoken of,
has born a poor Crop for one Year or two; and by its spilling, after cutting,
emaciated, and in three or four Years, died.  This Experiment, I believe,
has never fail'd; for I have trimm'd the natural Vine the French way,
which has been attended, at last, with the same Fate.  Wherefore, it seems
most expedient, to leave the Vines more Branches here, than in Europe,
or let them run up Trees, as some do, in Lombardy, upon Elms.
The Mulberries and Chinkapin are tough, and trimm'd to what you please,
therefore fit Supporters of the Vines.  Gelding and plucking away the Leaves,
to hasten the ripening of this Fruit, may not be unnecessary,
yet we see the natural wild Grape generally ripens in the Shade.
Nature in this, and many others, may prove a sure Guide.
The Twisting of the Stems to make the Grapes ripe together,
loses no Juice, and may be beneficial, if done in Season.
A very ingenious French Gentleman, and another from Switzerland,
with whom I frequently converse, exclaim against that strict cutting of Vines,
the generally approved Method of France and Germany, and say,
that they were both out in their Judgment, till of late, Experience has
taught them otherwise.  Moreover, the French in North Carolina assure me,
that if we should trim our Apple and other Fruit-Trees,
as they do in Europe, we should spoil them.  As for Apples and Plums,
I have found by Experience, what they affirm to be true.  The French,
from the Mannakin Town on the Freshes of James River in Virginia,
had, for the most part, removed themselves to Carolina, to live there,
before I came away; and the rest were following, as their Minister,
(Monsieur Philip de Rixbourg) told me, who was at Bath-Town,
when I was taking my leave of my Friends.  He assur'd me, that their Intent
was to propagate Vines, as far as their present Circumstances would permit;
provided they could get any Slips of Vines, that would do.  At the same time,
I had gotten some Grape-Seed, which was of the Jesuits white Grape
from Madera.  The Seed came up very plentifully, and, I hope,
will not degenerate, which if it happens not to do, the Seed may prove
the best way to raise a Vineyard, as certainly it is most easy
for Transportation.  Yet I reckon we should have our Seed from a Country,
where the Grape arrives to the utmost Perfection of Ripeness.
These French Refugees have had small Encouragement in Virginia,
because, at their first coming over, they took their Measures of Living,
from Europe; which was all wrong; for the small Quantities of ten,
fifteen, and twenty Acres to a Family did not hold out according to
their way of Reckoning, by Reason they made very little or no Fodder;
and the Winter there being much harder than with us, their Cattle fail'd;
chiefly, because the English took up and survey'd all the Land
round about them; so that they were hemm'd in on all Hands
from providing more Land for themselves or their Children,
all which is highly prejudicial in America, where the generality
are bred up to Planting.  One of these French Men being a Fowling,
shot a Fowl in the River, upon which his Dog went down the Bank
to bring it to his Master; but the Bank was so high and steep,
that he could not get up again.  Thereupon, the French Man went down,
to help his Dog up, and breaking the Mould away, accidentally, with his Feet,
he discover'd a very rich Coal-Mine.  This Adventure he gave an Account of
amongst the Neighbourhood, and presently one of the Gentlemen of that Part
survey'd the Land, and the poor French Man got nothing by his Discovery.
The French are good Neighbours amongst us, and give Examples of Industry,
which is much wanted in this Country.  They make good Flax, Hemp,
Linnen-Cloth and Thread; which they exchange amongst the Neighbourhood
for other Commodities, for which they have occasion.

We have hitherto made no Tryal of foreign Herbage; but, doubtless,
it would thrive well; especially, Sanfoin, and those Grasses,
that endure Heat, and dry Grounds.  As for our Low Lands, such as Marshes,
Savannas and Percoarson-Ground, which lies low, all of them naturally afford
good Land for Pasturage.

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