A New Voyage to Carolina

John Lawson, first published 1709

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The Indians, which were the Inhabitants of America, when the Spaniards
and other Europeans discover'd the several Parts of that Country,
are the People which we reckon the Natives thereof; as indeed they were,
when we first found out those Parts, and appear'd therein.
Yet this has not wrought in me a full Satisfaction, to allow these People
to have been the Ancient Dwellers of the New-World, or Tract of Land
we call America.  The Reasons that I have to think otherwise,
are too many to set down here; but I shall give the Reader a few,
before I proceed; and some others he will find scatter'd
in my Writings elsewhere.

In Carolina (the Part I now treat of) are the fairest Marks of a Deluge,
(that at some time has probably made strange Alterations,
as to the Station that Country was then in) that ever I saw,
or, I think, read of, in any History.  {Wood under Ground.}
Amongst the other Subterraneous Matters, that have been discover'd,
we found, in digging of a Well that was twenty six foot deep,
at the Bottom thereof, many large Pieces of the Tulip-Tree,
and several other sorts of Wood, some of which were cut and notch'd,
and some squared, as the Joices of a House are, which appear'd
(in the Judgment of all that saw them) to be wrought with Iron Instruments;
it seeming impossible for any thing made of Stone, or what they were found
to make use of, to cut Wood in that manner.  It cannot be argu'd,
that the Wood so cut, might float from some other Continent;
because Hiccory and the Tulip-Tree are spontaneous in America,
and in no other Places, that I could ever learn.  {Shells some Fathoms
in the Earth, the Sea probably has thrown up in part of this Country.}
{Mexico Buildings.}  It is to be acknowledg'd, that the Spaniards
give us Relations of magnificent Buildings, which were raised
by the Indians of Mexico and other Parts, which they discover'd,
and conquer'd; amongst whom no Iron Instruments were found:
But 'tis a great Misfortune, that no Person in that Expedition was so curious,
as to take an exact Draught of the Fabricks of those People,
which would have been a Discovery of great Value, and very acceptable
to the Ingenious; for, as to the Politeness of Stones, it may be effected
by Collision, and Grinding, which is of a contrary Nature,
on several Accounts, and disproves not my Arguments, in the least.

{Earthen Pots under Ground.}
The next is, the Earthen Pots that are often found under Ground,
and at the Foot of the Banks where the Water has wash'd them away.  They are
for the most part broken in pieces; but we find them of a different sort,
in Comparison of those the Indians use at this day, who have had no other,
ever since the English discover'd America.  The Bowels of the Earth
cannot have alter'd them, since they are thicker, of another Shape,
and Composition, and nearly approach to the Urns of the Ancient Romans.

{Indian Peaches.}
Again, the Peaches, which are the only tame Fruit, or what is Foreign,
that these People enjoy, which is an Eastern Product, and will keep and retain
its vegetative and growing Faculty, the longest of any thing of that Nature,
that I know of.  {The Stone.  Water-Melon and Gourds the Indians
have always had.}  The Stone, as I elsewhere have remark'd, is thicker
than any other sort of the Peaches in Europe, or of the European sort,
now growing in America, and is observed to grow if planted,
after it has been for several Years laid by; and it seems very probable,
that these People might come from some Eastern Country; for when you ask them
whence their Fore-Fathers came, that first inhabited the Country,
they will point to the Westward and say, `Where the Sun sleeps,
our Forefathers came thence', which, at that distance, may be reckon'd
amongst the Eastern Parts of the World.  And to this day,
they are a shifting, wandring People; for I know some Indian Nations,
that have chang'd their Settlements, many hundred Miles;
sometimes no less than a thousand, as is prov'd by the Savanna Indians,
who formerly lived on the Banks of the Messiasippi, and remov'd thence
to the Head of one of the Rivers of South-Carolina; since which,
(for some Dislike) most of them are remov'd to live in the Quarters
of the Iroquois or Sinnagars, which are on the Heads of the Rivers
that disgorge themselves into the Bay of Chesapeak.  I once met
with a young Indian Woman, that had been brought from beyond the Mountains,
and was sold a Slave into Virginia.  She spoke the same Language,
as the Coranine Indians, that dwell near Cape-Look-out,
allowing for some few Words, which were different, yet no otherwise,
than that they might understand one another very well.

{Indian well shap'd People.}
The Indians of North-Carolina are a well-shap'd clean-made People,
of different Statures, as the Europeans are, yet chiefly inclin'd
to be tall.  They are a very streight People, and never bend forwards,
or stoop in the Shoulders, unless much overpower'd by old Age.
Their Limbs are exceeding well-shap'd.  As for their Legs and Feet,
they are generally the handsomest in the World.  Their Bodies are
a little flat, which is occasion'd, by being laced hard down to a Board,
in their Infancy.  This is all the Cradle they have, which I shall
describe at large elsewhere.  Their Eyes are black, or of a dark Hazle;
The White is marbled with red Streaks, which is ever common to these People,
unless when sprung from a white Father or Mother.  Their Colour is of a tawny,
which would not be so dark, did they not dawb themselves with Bears Oil,
and a Colour like burnt Cork.  This is begun in their Infancy,
and continued for a long time, which fills the Pores, and enables them better
to endure the Extremity of the Weather.  They are never bald on their Heads,
although never so old, which, I believe, proceeds from their Heads
being always uncover'd, and the greasing their Hair (so often as they do)
with Bears Fat, which is a great Nourisher of the Hair, and causes it
to grow very fast.  Amongst the Bears Oil (when they intend to be fine)
they mix a certain red Powder, that comes from a Scarlet Root which they get
in the hilly Country, near the Foot of the great Ridge of Mountains,
and it is no where else to be found.  They have this Scarlet Root
in great Esteem, and sell it for a very great Price, one to another.
The Reason of its Value is, because they not only go a long way for it,
but are in great Danger of the Sinnagars or Iroquois,
who are mortal Enemies to all our Indians, and very often
take them Captives, or kill them, before they return from this Voyage.
The Tuskeruros and other Indians have often brought this Seed
with them from the Mountains; but it would never grow in our Land.
With this and Bears Grease they anoint their Heads and Temples,
which is esteem'd as ornamental, as sweet Powder to our Hair.
Besides, this Root has the Virtue of killing Lice, and suffers none
to abide or breed in their Heads.  For want of this Root,
they sometimes use Pecoon-Root, which is of a Crimson Colour,
but it is apt to die the Hair of an ugly Hue.

Their Eyes are commonly full and manly, and their Gate sedate and majestick.
They never walk backward and forward as we do, nor contemplate
on the Affairs of Loss and Gain; the things which daily perplex us.
They are dexterous and steady both as to their Hands and Feet, to Admiration.
They will walk over deep Brooks, and Creeks, on the smallest Poles,
and that without any Fear or Concern.  Nay, an Indian will walk
on the Ridge of a Barn or House and look down the Gable-end,
and spit upon the Ground, as unconcern'd, as if he was walking
on Terra firma.  In Running, Leaping, or any such other Exercise,
their Legs seldom miscarry, and give them a Fall; and as for letting
any thing fall out of their Hands, I never yet knew one Example.
They are no Inventers of any Arts or Trades worthy mention;
the Reason of which I take to be, that they are not possess'd
with that Care and Thoughtfulness, how to provide for the Necessaries of Life,
as the Europeans are; yet they will learn any thing very soon.
I have known an Indian stock Guns better than most of our Joiners,
although he never saw one stock'd before; and besides, his Working-Tool
was only a sorry Knife.  I have also known several of them that were Slaves
to the English, learn Handicraft-Trades very well and speedily.  {No Dwarf.}
I never saw a Dwarf amongst them, nor but one that was Hump-back'd.
Their Teeth are yellow with Smoaking Tobacco, which both Men and Women
are much addicted to.  They tell us, that they had Tobacco amongst them,
before the Europeans made any Discovery of that Continent.
It differs in the Leaf from the sweet-scented, and Oroonoko,
which are the Plants we raise and cultivate in America.  {Indian Tobacco.}
Theirs differs likewise much in the Smell, when green, from our Tobacco,
before cured.  They do not use the same way to cure it as we do;
and therefore, the Difference must be very considerable in Taste;
for all Men (that know Tobacco) must allow, that it is the Ordering thereof
which gives a Hogoo to that Weed, rather than any Natural Relish it possesses,
when green.  Although they are great Smokers, yet they never are seen
to take it in Snuff, or chew it.

They have no Hairs on their Faces (except some few) and those but little,
nor is there often found any Hair under their Arm-Pits.
They are continually plucking it away from their Faces, by the Roots.
As for their Privities, since they wore Tail-Clouts,
to cover their Nakedness, several of the Men have a deal of Hair thereon.
It is to be observ'd, that the Head of the Penis is cover'd
(throughout all the Nations of the Indians I ever saw)
both in Old and Young.  Although we reckon these a very smooth People,
and free from Hair; yet I once saw a middle-aged Man, that was hairy
all down his Back; the Hairs being above an Inch long.

{Few Cripples.}
As there are found very few, or scarce any, Deformed, or Cripples,
amongst them, so neither did I ever see but one blind Man;
and then they would give me no Account how his Blindness came.
They had a Use for him, which was, to lead him with a Girl, Woman, or Boy,
by a String; so they put what Burdens they pleased upon his Back,
and made him very serviceable upon all such Occasions.  {Indians good Eyes.}
No People have better Eyes, or see better in the Night or Day,
than the Indians.  Some alledge, that the Smoke of the Pitch-Pine,
which they chiefly burn, does both preserve and strengthen the Eyes;
as, perhaps, it may do, because that Smoak never offends the Eyes,
though you hold your Face over a great Fire thereof.  This is occasion'd
by the volatile Part of the Turpentine, which rises with the Smoke,
and is of a friendly, balsamick Nature; for the Ashes of the Pine-Tree
afford no fix'd Salt in them.

{Not pair their Nails.}
They let their Nails grow very long, which, they reckon,
is the Use Nails are design'd for, and laugh at the Europeans
for pairing theirs, which, they say, disarms them of that which Nature
design'd them for.

{Indians not robust.}
They are not of so robust and strong Bodies, as to lift great Burdens,
and endure Labour and slavish Work, as the Europeans are;
yet some that are Slaves, prove very good and laborious:
{No hard Workers.}  But, of themselves, they never work as the English do,
taking care for no farther than what is absolutely necessary to support Life.
In Travelling and Hunting, they are very indefatigable;
because that carries a Pleasure along with the Profit.
I have known some of them very strong; and as for Running and Leaping,
they are extraordinary Fellows, and will dance for several Nights together,
with the greatest Briskness imaginable, their Wind never failing them.

{Indians Dance of War.  On what Account they make War.}
Their Dances are of different Natures; and for every sort of Dance,
they have a Tune, which is allotted for that Dance; as,
if it be a War-Dance, they have a warlike Song, wherein they express,
with all the Passion and Vehemence imaginable, what they intend to do
with their Enemies; how they will kill, roast, sculp, beat, and make Captive,
such and such Numbers of them; and how many they have destroy'd before.
All these Songs are made new for every Feast; nor is one and the same Song
sung at two several Festivals.  {Indian Poet.}  Some one of the Nation
(which has the best Gift of expressing their Designs) is appointed
by their King, and War-Captains, to make these Songs.

{Dance of Peace.}
Others are made for Feasts of another Nature; as, when several Towns,
or sometimes, different Nations have made Peace with one another;
then the Song suits both Nations, and relates, how the bad Spirit
made them go to War, and destroy one another; but it shall never be so again;
but that their Sons and Daughters shall marry together, and the two Nations
love one another, and become as one People.

They have a third sort of Feasts and Dances, which are always
when the Harvest of Corn is ended, and in the Spring.  The one,
to return Thanks to the good Spirit, for the Fruits of the Earth;
the other, to beg the same Blessings for the succeeding Year.
And, to encourage the young Men to labour stoutly, in planting
their Maiz and Pulse, they set a sort of an Idol in the Field,
which is dress'd up exactly like an Indian, having all the Indians Habit,
besides abundance of Wampum, and their Money, made of Shells,
that hangs about his Neck.  {Plantation Idol.}  The Image
none of the young Men dare approach; for the old ones will not suffer them
to come near him, but tell them, that he is some famous Indian Warriour,
that died a great while ago, and now is come amongst them,
to see if they work well, which if they do, he will go to the good Spirit,
and speak to him to send them Plenty of Corn, and to make the young Men
all expert Hunters and mighty Warriours.  All this while,
the King and old Men sit round the Image, and seemingly pay
a profound Respect to the same.  One great Help to these Indians,
in carrying on these Cheats, and inducing Youth to do what they please,
is, the uninterrupted Silence, which is ever kept and observ'd,
with all the Respect and Veneration imaginable.

At these Feasts, which are set out with all the Magnificence
their Fare allows of, the Masquerades begin at Night, and not before.
There is commonly a Fire made in the middle of the House, which is the largest
in the Town, and is very often the Dwelling of their King, or War-Captain;
where sit two Men on the Ground, upon a Mat; one with a Rattle,
made of a Gourd, with some Beans in it; the other with a Drum,
made of an earthen Pot, cover'd with a dress'd-Deer-Skin,
and one Stick in his Hand to beat thereon; and so they both begin
the Song appointed.  {Indian Musicians.}  At the same time, one drums,
and the other rattles, which is all the artificial Musick of their own making
I ever saw amongst them.  To these two Instruments they sing,
which carries no Air with it, but is a sort of unsavoury Jargon;
yet their Cadences and Raising of their Voices are form'd
with that Equality and Exactness, that (to us Europeans) it seems admirable,
how they should continue these Songs, without once missing to agree,
each with the others Note and Tune.

As for their Dancing, were there Masters of that Profession amongst them,
as there are with us, they would dearly earn their Money;
for these Creatures take the most Pains at it, that Men are able to endure.
I have seen thirty odd together a dancing, and every one
dropp'd down with Sweat, as if Water had been poured down their Backs.
They use those hard Labours, to make them able to endure Fatigue,
{Indians long winded.} and improve their Wind, which indeed
is very long and durable, it being a hard matter, in any Exercise,
to dispossess them of it.

At these Feasts, they meet from all the Towns within fifty or sixty
Miles round, where they buy and sell several Commodities, as we do
at Fairs and Markets.  {Indian Gaming.}  Besides, they game very much,
and often strip one another of all they have in the World; and what is more,
I have known several of them play themselves away, so that they have
remain'd the Winners Servants, till their Relations or themselves
could pay the Money to redeem them; and when this happens,
the Loser is never dejected or melancholy at the Loss, but laughs,
and seems no less contented than if he had won.  They never differ at Gaming,
neither did I ever see a Dispute, about the Legality thereof,
so much as rise amongst them.

{Indian Cards.}
Their chiefest Game is a sort of Arithmetick, which is managed
by a Parcel of small split Reeds, the Thickness of a small Bent;
these are made very nicely, so that they part, and are tractable
in their Hands.  They are fifty one in Number, their Length
about seven Inches; when they play, they throw part of them
to their Antagonist; the Art is, to discover, upon sight, how many you have,
and what you throw to him that plays with you.  Some are so expert
at their Numbers, that they will tell ten times together,
what they throw out of their Hands.  Although the whole Play is carried on
with the quickest Motion it's possible to use, yet some are so expert
at this Game, as to win great Indian Estates by this Play.
A good Sett of these Reeds, fit to play withal, are valued and sold
for a dress'd Doe-Skin.

{Indian Dice.}
They have several other Plays and Games; as, with the Kernels or Stones
of Persimmons, which are in effect the same as our Dice,
because Winning or Losing depend on which side appear uppermost,
and how they happen to fall together.

{Indian Trap-Ball.}
Another Game is managed with a Batoon and a Ball, and resembles our Trap-ball;
besides, several Nations have several Games and Pastimes,
which are not used by others.

{Indian Cabins.}
These Savages live in Wigwams, or Cabins built of Bark, which are made round
like an Oven, to prevent any Damage by hard Gales of Wind.  They make the Fire
in the middle of the House, and have a Hole at the Top of the Roof
right above the Fire, to let out the Smoke.  These Dwellings
are as hot as Stoves, where the Indians sleep and sweat all Night.
The Floors thereof are never paved nor swept, so that they have always
a loose Earth on them.  {Fleas.}  They are often troubled
with a multitude of Fleas, especially near the Places where
they dress their Deer-Skins, because that Hair harbours them;
yet I never felt any ill, unsavory Smell in their Cabins,
whereas, should we live in our Houses, as they do, we should be poison'd
with our own Nastiness; {Indians a sweet People.} which confirms
these Indians to be, as they really are, some of the sweetest People
in the World.

The Bark they make their Cabins withal, is generally Cypress,
or red or white Cedar; and sometimes, when they are a great way
from any of these Woods, they make use of Pine-Bark, which is the worser sort.
{Making Cabins.}  In building these Fabricks, they get very long Poles,
of Pine, Cedar, Hiccory, or any Wood that will bend; these are
the Thickness of the Small of a Man's Leg, at the thickest end,
which they generally strip of the Bark, and warm them well in the Fire,
which makes them tough and fit to bend; afterwards, they stick
the thickest ends of them in the Ground, about two Yards asunder,
in a Circular Form, the distance they design the Cabin to be,
(which is not always round, but sometimes oval) then they bend the Tops
and bring them together, and bind their ends with Bark of Trees,
that is proper for that use, as Elm is, {Black Moss.} or sometimes the Moss
that grows on the Trees, and is a Yard or two long, and never rots;
then they brace them with other Poles, to make them strong; afterwards,
cover them all over with Bark, so that they are very warm and tight,
and will keep firm against all the Weathers that blow.
{Indians Store-Houses.}  They have other sorts of Cabins without Windows,
which are for their Granaries, Skins, and Merchandizes;
and others that are cover'd over head; the rest left open for the Air.
{Indians Banqueting Houses.}  These have Reed-Hurdles, like Tables,
to lie and sit on, in Summer, and serve for pleasant Banqueting-Houses
in the hot Season of the Year.  The Cabins they dwell in have Benches
all round, except where the Door stands; on these they lay Beasts-Skins,
and Mats made of Rushes, whereon they sleep and loll.  In one of these,
several Families commonly live, though all related to one another.

As to the Indians Food, it is of several sorts, which are as follows.

{Indian Food.}
Venison, and Fawns in the Bags, cut out of the Doe's Belly;
Fish of all sorts, the Lamprey-Eel excepted, and the Sturgeon
our Salt-Water Indians will not touch; Bear and Bever; Panther; Pole-cat;
Wild-cat; Possum; Raccoon; Hares, and Squirrels, roasted with their Guts in;
Snakes, all Indians will not eat them, tho' some do; All wild Fruits
that are palatable, some of which they dry and keep against Winter,
as all sort of Fruits, and Peaches, which they dry, and make Quiddonies,
and Cakes, that are very pleasant, and a little tartish;
young Wasps, when they are white in the Combs, before they can fly,
this is esteemed a Dainty; All sorts of Tortois and Terebins;
Shell-Fish, and Stingray, or Scate, dry'd; Gourds; Melons; Cucumbers;
Squashes; Pulse of all sorts; Rockahomine Meal, which is their Maiz,
parch'd and pounded into Powder; Fowl of all sorts, that are eatable;
Ground-Nuts, or wild Potato's; Acorns and Acorn Oil; Wild-Bulls, Beef,
Mutton, Pork, &c. from the English; Indian Corn, or Maiz,
made into several sorts of Bread; Ears of Corn roasted in the Summer,
or preserv'd against Winter.

The Victuals is common, throughout the whole Kindred Relations,
and often to the whole Town; especially, when they are in Hunting-Quarters,
then they all fare alike, whichsoever of them kills the Game.
{Feasts of Charity.  Indians discern not between fat and lean Meat.}
They are very kind, and charitable to one another, but more especially
to those of their own Nation; for if any one of them has suffer'd any Loss,
by Fire or otherwise, they order the griev'd Person to make a Feast,
and invite them all thereto, which, on the day appointed, they come to,
and after every Man's Mess of Victuals is dealt to him, one of their Speakers,
or grave old Men, makes an Harangue, and acquaints the Company,
That that Man's House has been burnt, wherein all his Goods were destroy'd;
That he, and his Family, very narrowly escaped; That he is every Man's Friend
in that Company; and, That it is all their Duties to help him,
as he would do to any of them, had the like Misfortune befallen them.
After this Oration is over, every Man, according to his Quality,
throws him down upon the Ground some Present, which is commonly Beads,
Ronoak, Peak, Skins or Furs, and which very often amounts to treble
the Loss he has suffer'd.  The same Assistance they give to any Man
that wants to build a Cabin, or make a Canoe.  They say, it is our Duty
thus to do; for there are several Works that one Man cannot effect,
therefore we must give him our Help, otherwise our Society will fall,
and we shall be depriv'd of those urgent Necessities which Life requires.
{Indians no Fences.}  They have no Fence to part one anothers Lots
in their Corn-Fields; but every Man knows his own, and it scarce ever happens,
that they rob one another of so much as an Ear of Corn,
which if any is found to do, he is sentenced by the Elders
to work and plant for him that was robb'd, till he is recompensed
for all the Damage he has suffer'd in his Corn-Field;
and this is punctually perform'd, and the Thief held in Disgrace,
that steals from any of his Country-Folks.  {Indians Charity to Widows.}
It often happens, that a Woman is destitute of her Husband,
and has a great many Children to maintain; such a Person they always help,
and make their young men plant, reap, and do every thing
that she is not capable of doing herself; yet they do not allow any one
to be idle, but to employ themselves in some Work or other.

{Indian Women no Scolds.}
They never fight with one another, unless drunk, nor do you ever hear
any Scolding amongst them.  They say, the Europeans are always
rangling and uneasy, and wonder they do not go out of this World, since they
are so uneasy and discontented in it.  All their Misfortunes and Losses
end in Laughter; for if their Cabins take Fire, and all their Goods
are burnt therein, (indeed, all will strive to prevent farther Damage,
whilst there is any Possibility) yet such a Misfortune ends
in a hearty Fitt of Laughter, unless some of their Kinsfolks and Friends
have lost their Lives; but then the Case is alter'd, and they become
very pensive, and go into deep Mourning, which is continued
for a considerable Time; sometimes longer, or shorter, according to
the Dignity of the Person, and the Number of Relations he had near him.

The Burial of their Dead is perform'd with a great deal of Ceremony,
in which one Nation differs, in some few Circumstances, from another,
yet not so much but we may, by a general Relation, pretty nearly account
for them all.

{Indian Burial of their Dead.}
When an Indian is dead, the greater Person he was, the more expensive
is his Funeral.  The first thing which is done, is, to place
the nearest Relations near the Corps, who mourn and weep very much,
having their Hair hanging down their Shoulders, in a very forlorn manner.
After the dead Person has lain a Day and a Night, in one of their
Hurdles of Canes, commonly in some Out-House made for that purpose,
those that officiate about the Funeral, go into the Town, and the first
young Men they meet withal, that have Blankets or Match Coats on,
whom they think fit for their Turn, they strip them from their Backs,
who suffer them so to do, without any Resistance.  In these
they wrap the dead Bodies, and cover them with two or three Mats,
which the Indians make of Rushes or Cane; and last of all,
they have a long Web of woven Reeds, or hollow Canes, which is
the Coffin of the Indians, and is brought round several times,
and tied fast at both ends, which indeed, looks very decent and well.
Then the Corps is brought out of the House, into the Orchard of Peach-Trees,
where another Hurdle is made to receive it, about which comes
all the Relations and Nation that the dead Person belong'd to,
besides several from other Nations in Alliance with them;
all which sit down on the Ground, upon Mats spread there, for that purpose;
where the Doctor or Conjurer appears; and, after some time,
makes a Sort of `O-yes', at which all are very silent; then he begins
to give an Account, who the dead Person was, and how stout a Man
he approv'd himself; how many Enemies and Captives he had kill'd and taken;
how strong, tall, and nimble he was; that he was a great Hunter,
a Lover of his Country, and possess'd of a great many beautiful
Wives and Children, esteem'd the greatest of Blessings among these Savages,
in which they have a true Notion.  {Indian Funeral Sermon.}
Thus this Orator runs on, highly extolling the dead Man,
for his Valour, Conduct, Strength, Riches, and Good-Humour;
and enumerating his Guns, Slaves and almost every thing
he was possess'd of, when living.  After which, he addresses himself
to the People of that Town or Nation, and bids them supply
the dead Man's Place, by following his steps, who, he assures them,
is gone into the Country of Souls, (which they think lies a great way off,
in this World, which the Sun visits, in his ordinary Course)
and that he will have the Enjoyment of handsome young Women,
great Store of Deer to hunt, never meet with Hunger, Cold or Fatigue,
but every thing to answer his Expectation and Desire.
This is the Heaven they propose to themselves; but, on the contrary,
for those Indians that are lazy, thievish amongst themselves,
bad Hunters, and no Warriours, nor of much Use to the Nation,
to such they allot, in the next World, Hunger, Cold, Troubles, old ugly Women
for their Companions, with Snakes, and all sorts of nasty Victuals to feed on.
Thus is mark'd out their Heaven and Hell.  {Indian Traditions.}
After all this Harangue, he diverts the People with some of their Traditions,
as when there was a violent hot Summer, or very hard Winter;
when any notable Distempers rag'd amongst them; when they were at War
with such and such Nations; how victorious they were; and what were
the Names of their War-Captains.  To prove the times more exactly,
he produces the Records of the Country, which are a Parcel of Reeds,
of different Lengths, with several distinct Marks, known to none
but themselves; by which they seem to guess, very exactly,
at Accidents that happen'd many Years ago; nay two or three Ages or more.
The Reason I have to believe what they tell me, on this Account,
is, because I have been at the Meetings of several Indian Nations;
and they agreed, in relating the same Circumstances, as to Time,
very exactly; {A hard Winter.} as, for Example, they say,
there was so hard a Winter in Carolina, 105 years ago,
that the great Sound was frozen over, and the Wild Geese came into the Woods
to eat Acorns, and that they were so tame, (I suppose, through Want)
that they kill'd abundance in the Woods, by knocking them on the Head
with Sticks.

But, to return to the dead Man.  When this long Tale is ended,
by him that spoke first; perhaps, a second begins another long Story;
so a third, and fourth, if there be so many Doctors present;
which all tell one and the same thing.  At last, the Corps is brought away
from that Hurdle to the Grave, by four young Men, attended by the Relations,
the King, old Men, and all the Nation.  {Interment in the Grave.}
When they come to the Sepulcre, which is about six Foot deep,
and eight Foot long, having at each end (that is, at the Head and Foot)
a Light-Wood, or Pitch-Pine Fork driven close down the sides of the Grave,
firmly into the Ground; (these two Forks are to contain a Ridge-Pole,
as you shall understand presently) before they lay the Corps into the Grave,
they cover the bottom two or three times over with Bark of Trees,
then they let down the Corps (with two Belts, that the Indians
carry their Burdens withal) very leisurely, upon the said Barks;
then they lay over a Pole of the same Wood, in the two Forks, and having
a great many Pieces of Pitch-Pine Logs, about two Foot and a half long,
they stick them in the sides of the Grave down each End,
and near the Top thereof, where the other Ends lie on the Ridge-Pole,
so that they are declining like the Roof of a House.  These being
very thick-plac'd, they cover them (many times double) with Bark;
then they throw the Earth thereon, that came out of the Grave,
and beat it down very firm; by this Means, the dead Body lies in a Vault,
nothing touching him; so that when I saw this way of Burial,
I was mightily pleas'd with it, esteeming it very decent and pretty,
as having seen a great many Christians buried without
the tenth Part of that Ceremony and Decency.  {Quiogozon Idols.}
Now, when the Flesh is rotted and moulder'd from the Bone,
they take up the Carcass, and clean the Bones, and joint them together;
afterwards, they dress them up in pure white dress'd Deer-Skins,
and lay them amongst their Grandees and Kings in the Quiogozon,
which is their Royal Tomb or Burial-Place of their Kings and War-Captains.
This is a very large magnificent Cabin, (according to their Building)
which is rais'd at the Publick Charge of the Nation, and maintain'd
in a great deal of Form and Neatness.  {Idols at the Beds.}
About seven foot high, is a Floor or Loft made, on which lie
all their Princes, and Great Men, that have died for several hundred Years,
all attir'd in the Dress I before told you of.  No Person is to have
his Bones lie here, and to be thus dress'd, unless he gives
a round Sum of their Money to the Rulers, for Admittance.
If they remove never so far, to live in a Foreign Country,
they never fail to take all these dead Bones along with them,
though the Tediousness of their short daily Marches keeps them never so long
on their Journey.  They reverence and adore this Quiogozon,
with all the Veneration and Respect that is possible for such a People
to discharge, and had rather lose all, than have any Violence or Injury
offer'd thereto.  These Savages differ some small matter in their Burials;
some burying right upwards, and otherwise, as you are acquainted withal
in my Journal from South to North Carolina; {Mourning for the Dead.}
Yet they all agree in their Mourning, which is, to appear every Night,
at the Sepulcre, and howl and weep in a very dismal manner, having their Faces
dawb'd over with Light-wood Soot, (which is the same as Lamp-black)
and Bears Oil.  This renders them as black as it is possible
to make themselves, so that theirs very much resemble
the Faces of Executed Men boil'd in Tar.  {Indians hired to mourn.}
If the dead Person was a Grandee, to carry on the Funeral Ceremonies,
they hire People to cry and lament over the dead Man.  Of this sort
there are several, that practise it for a Livelihood, and are very expert
at Shedding abundance of Tears, and howling like Wolves,
and so discharging their Office with abundance of Hypocrisy and Art.
The Women are never accompanied with these Ceremonies after Death;
and to what World they allot that Sex, I never understood,
unless, to wait on their dead Husbands; but they have more Wit,
than some of the Eastern Nations, who sacrifice themselves to accompany
their Husbands into the next World.  It is the dead Man's Relations, by Blood,
as his Uncles, Brothers, Sisters, Cousins, Sons, and Daughters,
that mourn in good earnest, the Wives thinking their Duty is discharg'd,
and that they are become free, when their Husband is dead;
so, as fast as they can, look out for another, to supply his Place.

{Indian Women handsome.}
As for the Indian Women, which now happen in my Way; when young,
and at Maturity, they are as fine-shap'd Creatures (take them generally)
as any in the Universe.  They are of a tawny Complexion;
their Eyes very brisk and amorous; their Smiles afford the finest Composure
a Face can possess; their Hands are of the finest Make,
with small long Fingers, and as soft as their Cheeks; and their whole Bodies
of a smooth Nature.  They are not so uncouth or unlikely, as we suppose them;
nor are they Strangers or not Proficients in the soft Passion.
They are most of them mercenary, except the married Women, who sometimes
bestow their Favours also to some or other, in their Husbands Absence.
For which they never ask any Reward.  {Married Women unconstant.}
As for the Report, that they are never found unconstant, like the Europeans,
it is wholly false; for were the old World and the new one put into
a Pair of Scales (in point of Constancy) it would be a hard Matter to discern
which was the heavier.  {Trading Girls.}  As for the Trading Girls,
which are those design'd to get Money by their Natural Parts,
these are discernable, by the Cut of their Hair; their Tonsure differing
from all others, of that Nation, who are not of their Profession;
which Method is intended to prevent Mistakes; for the Savages of America
are desirous (if possible) to keep their Wives to themselves,
as well as those in other Parts of the World.  When any Addresses are made
to one of these Girls, she immediately acquaints her Parents therewith,
and they tell the King of it, (provided he that courts her be a Stranger)
his Majesty commonly being the principal Bawd of the Nation he rules over,
and there seldom being any of these Winchester-Weddings agreed on,
without his Royal Consent.  He likewise advises her what Bargain to make,
and if it happens to be an Indian Trader that wants a Bed-fellow,
and has got Rum to sell, be sure, the King must have a large Dram for a Fee,
to confirm the Match.  These Indians, that are of the elder sort,
when any such Question is put to them, will debate the Matter
amongst themselves with all the Sobriety and Seriousness imaginable,
every one of the Girl's Relations arguing the Advantage or Detriment
that may ensue such a Night's Encounter; all which is done
with as much Steadiness and Reality, as if it was the greatest Concern
in the World, and not so much as one Person shall be seen to smile,
so long as the Debate holds, making no Difference betwixt
an Agreement of this Nature, and a Bargain of any other.  If they comply
with the Men's Desire, then a particular Bed is provided for them,
either in a Cabin by themselves, or else all the young people turn out,
to another Lodging, that they may not spoil Sport; and if the old People
are in the same Cabin along with them all Night, they lie as unconcern'd,
as if they were so many Logs of Wood.  If it be an Indian of their own
Town or Neighbourhood, that wants a Mistress, he comes to none but the Girl,
who receives what she thinks fit to ask him, and so lies all Night with him,
without the Consent of her Parents.

{Indian Traders what.}
The Indian Traders are those which travel and abide amongst the Indians
for a long space of time; sometimes for a Year, two, or three.
{Indian Wives.}  These Men have commonly their Indian Wives,
whereby they soon learn the Indian Tongue, keep a Friendship
with the Savages; and, besides the Satisfaction of a She-Bed-Fellow,
they find these Indian Girls very serviceable to them,
on Account of dressing their Victuals, and instructing 'em
in the Affairs and Customs of the Country.  Moreover, such a Man gets
a great Trade with the Savages; for when a Person that lives amongst them,
is reserv'd from the Conversation of their Women, 'tis impossible for him
ever to accomplish his Designs amongst that People.

But one great Misfortune which oftentimes attends those that converse
with these Savage Women, is, that they get Children by them,
which are seldom educated any otherwise than in a State of Infidelity;
for it is a certain Rule and Custom, amongst all the Savages of America,
that I was ever acquainted withal, to let the Children always fall
to the Woman's Lot; {Children go with the Women.} for it often happens,
that two Indians that have liv'd together, as Man and Wife,
in which Time they have had several Children; if they part,
and another Man possesses her, all the Children go along with the Mother,
and none with the Father.  And therefore, on this Score,
it ever seems impossible for the Christians to get their Children
(which they have by these Indian Women) away from them;
whereby they might bring them up in the Knowledge of the Christian Principles.
Nevertheless, we often find, that English Men, and other Europeans
that have been accustom'd to the Conversation of these savage Women,
and their Way of Living, have been so allur'd with that careless sort of Life,
as to be constant to their Indian Wife, and her Relations,
so long as they liv'd, without ever desiring to return again
amongst the English, although they had very fair Opportunities of Advantages
amongst their Countrymen; of which sort I have known several.

As for the Indian Marriages, I have read and heard of a great deal
of Form and Ceremony used, which I never saw, nor yet could learn
in the Time I have been amongst them, any otherwise than I shall here
give you an Account of; which is as follows.

{Indian Marriage.}
When any young Indian has a Mind for such a Girl to his Wife,
he, or some one for him, goes to the young Woman's Parents, if living;
if not, to her nearest Relations; where they make Offers of the Match
betwixt the Couple.  The Relations reply, they will consider of it,
which serves for a sufficient Answer, till there be a second Meeting
about the Marriage, which is generally brought into Debate
before all the Relations (that are old People) on both Sides;
and sometimes the King, with all his great Men, give their Opinions therein.
If it be agreed on, and the young Woman approve thereof, (for these Savages
never give their Children in Marriage, without their own Consent)
{Indians buy their Wives.} the Man pays so much for his Wife;
and the handsomer she is, the greater Price she bears.  Now, it often happens,
that the Man has not so much of their Money ready, as he is to pay
for his Wife; but if they know him to be a good Hunter, and that he can raise
the Sum agreed for, in some few Moons, or any little time, they agree,
she shall go along with him, as betroth'd, but he is not to have
any Knowledge of her, till the utmost Payment is discharg'd;
all which is punctually observ'd.  Thus, they lie together under one Covering
for several Months, and the Woman remains the same as she was
when she first came to him.  I doubt, our Europeans would be apt
to break this Custom, {Indian Men not vigorous.} but the Indian Men
are not so vigorous and impatient in their Love as we are.
Yet the Women are quite contrary, and those Indian Girls
that have convers'd with the English and other Europeans,
never care for the Conversation of their own Countrymen afterwards.

They never marry so near as a first Cousin; and although there is nothing
more coveted amongst them, than to marry a Woman of their own Nation,
yet when the Nation consists of a very few People (as now adays
it often happens) so that they are all of them related to one another,
then they look out for Husbands and Wives amongst Strangers.
For if an Indian lies with his Sister, or any very near Relation,
his Body is burnt, and his Ashes thrown into the River, as unworthy
to remain on Earth; yet an Indian is allow'd to marry two Sisters,
or his Brothers Wife.  Although these People are call'd Savages,
yet Sodomy is never heard of amongst them, and they are so far
from the Practice of that beastly and loathsome Sin, that they have
no Name for it in all their Language.

The Marriages of these Indians are no farther binding,
than the Man and Woman agree together.  Either of them has Liberty
to leave the other, upon any frivolous Excuse they can make;
yet whosoever takes the Woman that was another Man's before,
and bought by him, as they all are, must certainly pay to her former Husband,
whatsoever he gave for her.  Nay, if she be a Widow, and her Husband
died in Debt, whosoever takes her to Wife, pays all her Husband's Obligations,
though never so many; yet the Woman is not required to pay any thing
(unless she is willing) that was owing from her Husband, so long as she
keeps Single.  But if a Man courts her for a Nights Lodging, and obtains it,
the Creditors will make him pay her Husband's Debts, and he may,
if he will, take her for his Money, or sell her to another for his Wife.
{Selling Wives.}  I have seen several of these Bargains driven in a day;
for you may see Men selling their Wives as Men do Horses in a Fair,
a Man being allow'd not only to change as often as he pleases,
but likewise to have as many Wives as he is able to maintain.
{Indian many Wives.}  I have often seen, that very old Indian Men
(that have been Grandees in their own Nation) have had three or four
very likely young Indian Wives, which I have much wondered at, because to me
they seem'd incapacitated to make good Use of one of them.

{Night Rambles.}
The young Men will go in the Night from one House to another, to visit
the young Women, in which sort of Rambles they will spend the whole Night.
In their Addresses they find no Delays, for if she is willing
to entertain the Man, she gives him Encouragement and grants him Admittance;
otherwise she withdraws her Face from him, and says, I cannot see you,
either you or I must leave this Cabin, and sleep somewhere else this Night.

They are never to boast of their Intrigues with the Women.  If they do,
none of the Girls value them ever after, or admit of their Company
in their Beds.  This proceeds not on the score of Reputation,
for there is no such thing (on that account) known amongst them;
and although we may reckon them the greatest Libertines and most extravagant
in their Embraces, yet they retain and possess a Modesty
that requires those Passions never to be divulged.

{Trading Girls marry at last.}
The Trading Girls, after they have led that Course of Life, for several Years,
in which time they scarce ever have a Child; (for they have an Art
to destroy the Conception, and she that brings a Child in this Station,
is accounted a Fool, and her Reputation is lessen'd thereby)
at last they grow weary of so many, and betake themselves to a married State,
or to the Company of one Man; neither does their having been common to so many
any wise lessen their Fortunes, but rather augment them.

{Women not punish'd for Adultery.}
The Woman is not punish'd for Adultery, but 'tis the Man that makes
the injur'd Person Satisfaction, which is the Law of Nations
practis'd amongst them all; and he that strives to evade such Satisfaction
as the Husband demands, lives daily in Danger of his Life;
yet when discharg'd, all Animosity is laid aside, and the Cuckold
is very well pleased with his Bargain, whilst the Rival is laugh'd at
by the whole Nation, for carrying on his Intrigue with no better Conduct,
than to be discover'd and pay so dear for his Pleasure.

The Indians say, that the Woman is a weak Creature, and easily drawn away
by the Man's Persuasion; for which Reason, they lay no Blame upon her,
but the Man (that ought to be Master of his Passion) for persuading her to it.

{Never Love-mad.}
They are of a very hale Constitution; their Breaths are as sweet as the Air
they breathe in, and the Woman seems to be of that tender Composition,
as if they were design'd rather for the Bed than Bondage.  Yet their Love
is never of that Force and Continuance, that any of them ever runs Mad,
or makes away with themselves on that score.  They never love
beyond Retrieving their first Indifferency, and when slighted,
are as ready to untie the Knot at one end, as you are at the other.

Yet I knew an European Man that had a Child or two by one of these
Indian Women, and afterwards married a Christian, after which
he came to pass away a Night with his Indian Mistress;
but she made Answer that she then had forgot she ever knew him,
and that she never lay with another Woman's Husband, so fell a crying,
and took up the Child she had by him, and went out of the Cabin
(away from him) in great Disorder.

{Indian Women what they do.}
The Indian Womens Work is to cook the Victuals for the whole Family,
and to make Mats, Baskets, Girdles of Possum-Hair, and such-like.
They never plant the Corn amongst us, as they do amongst the Iroquois,
{Iroquois great Warriours.} who are always at War and Hunting;
therefore, the Plantation Work is left for the Women and Slaves to perform,
and look after; whilst they are wandring all over the Continent
betwixt the two Bays of Mexico and St. Laurence.

{Mats how made.}
The Mats the Indian Women make, are of Rushes, and about five Foot high,
and two Fathom long, and sew'd double, that is, two together;
whereby they become very commodious to lay under our Beds,
or to sleep on in the Summer Season in the Day-time, and for our Slaves
in the Night.

There are other Mats made of Flags, which the Tuskeruro Indians make,
and sell to the Inhabitants.

The Baskets our Neighbouring Indians make, are all made of a very fine
sort of Bulrushes, and sometimes of Silk-grass, which they work
with Figures of Beasts, Birds, Fishes, &c.

A great way up in the Country, both Baskets and Mats are made
of the split Reeds, which are only the outward shining Part of the Cane.
Of these I have seen Mats, Baskets, and Dressing-Boxes,
very artificially done.

{Indian Wives.}
The Savage Women of America, have very easy Travail with their Children;
sometimes they bring Twins, and are brought to bed by themselves,
when took at a Disadvantage; not but that they have Midwives amongst them,
as well as Doctors, who make it their Profession (for Gain)
to assist and deliver Women, and some of these Midwives are very knowing
in several Medicines that Carolina affords, which certainly expedite,
and make easy Births.  Besides, they are unacquainted with those severe Pains
which follow the Birth in our European Women.  Their Remedies
are a great Cause of this Easiness in that State; for the Indian Women
will run up and down the Plantation, the same day, very briskly,
and without any sign of Pain or Sickness; yet they look very meager and thin.
Not but that we must allow a great deal owing to the Climate,
and the natural Constitution of these Women, whose Course of Nature
never visits them in such Quantities, as the European Women have.
And tho' they never want Plenty of Milk, yet I never saw an Indian Woman
with very large Breasts; neither does the youngest Wife ever fail of proving
so good a Nurse, as to bring her Child up free from the Rickets and Disasters
that proceed from the Teeth, with many other Distempers
which attack our Infants in England, and other Parts of Europe.
{Nurse Children how.}  They let their Children suck till they are well grown,
unless they prove big with Child sooner.  They always nurse
their own Children themselves, unless Sickness or Death prevents.
I once saw a Nurse hired to give Suck to an Indian Woman's Child,
which you have in my Journal.  After Delivery, they absent
the Company of a Man for forty days.  As soon as the Child is born,
they wash it in cold Water at the next Stream, and then bedawb it,
as I have mention'd before.  {Cradle.}  After which, the Husband takes care
to provide a Cradle, which is soon made, consisting of a Piece of flat Wood,
which they hew with their Hatchets to the Likeness of a Board; it is about
two Foot long, and a Foot broad; to this they brace and tie the Child down
very close, having, near the middle, a Stick fasten'd about two Inches
from the Board, which is for the Child's Breech to rest on,
under which they put a Wad of Moss, that receives the Child's Excrements,
by which means they can shift the Moss, and keep all clean and sweet.
Some Nations have very flat Heads, as you have heard in my Journal,
which is made whilst tied on this Cradle, as that Relation informs you.
These Cradles are apt to make the Body flat; yet they are
the most portable things that can be invented; for there is a String
which goes from one Corner of the Board to the other,
whereby the Mother flings her Child on her Back; so the Infant's Back
is towards hers, and its Face looks up towards the Sky.  If it rains,
she throws her Leather or Woollen Match-coat, over her Head,
which covers the Child all over, and secures her and it
from the Injuries of rainy Weather.  The Savage Women quit all Company,
and dress not their own Victuals, during their Purgations.

After they have had several Children, they grow strangely out of Shape
in their Bodies; As for Barrenness, I never knew any of their Women,
that have not Children when marry'd.

{Indian Womens Habit.}
The Womens Dress is, in severe Weather, a hairy Match-coat
in the Nature of a Plad, which keeps out the Cold, and (as I said before)
defends their Children from the Prejudices of the Weather.  At other times,
they have only a sort of Flap or Apron containing two Yards in Length,
and better than half a Yard deep.  Sometimes, it is a Deer-Skin dress'd white,
and pointed or slit at the bottom, like Fringe.  When this is clean,
it becomes them very well.  Others wear blue or red Flaps
made of Bays and Plains, which they buy of the English, of both which
they tuck in the Corners, to fasten the Garment, and sometimes make it fast
with a Belt.  All of them, when ripe, have a small String round the Waste,
to which another is tied and comes between their Legs, where always
is a Wad of Moss against the Os pubis; but never any Hair
is there to be found:  Sometimes, they wear Indian Shooes, or Moggizons,
which are made after the same manner, as the Mens are.

The Hair of their Heads is made into a long Roll like a Horses Tail,
and bound round with Ronoak or Porcelan, which is a sort of Beads
they make of the Conk-Shells.  Others that have not this,
make a Leather-String serve.

{Indian Mens Habit.}
The Indian Men have a Match-Coat of Hair, Furs, Feathers, or Cloth,
as the Women have.  Their Hair is roll'd up, on each Ear, as the Womens,
only much shorter, and oftentimes a Roll on the Crown of the Head, or Temples,
which is just as they fancy; there being no Strictness in their Dress.
Betwixt their Legs comes a Piece of Cloth, that is tuck'd in by a Belt
both before and behind.  This is to hide their Nakedness,
of which Decency they are very strict Observers, although never practised
before the Christians came amongst them.  They wear Shooes,
of Bucks, and sometimes Bears Skin, which they tan in an Hour or two;
with the Bark of Trees boil'd, wherein they put the Leather whilst hot,
and let it remain a little while, whereby it becomes so qualify'd,
as to endure Water and Dirt, without growing hard.  These have no Heels,
and are made as fit for the Feet, as a Glove is for the Hand,
and are very easie to travel in, when one is a little us'd to them.
{Indians washing in the River.}  When these Savages live near the Water,
they frequent the Rivers in Summer-time very much, where both Men and Women
very often in a day go in naked to wash themselves, though not
both Sexes together.

{Match-Coats how made.}
Their Feather Match-Coats are very pretty, especially some of them,
which are made extraordinary charming, containing several pretty Figures
wrought in Feathers, making them seem like a fine Flower Silk-Shag;
and when new and fresh, they become a Bed very well, instead of a Quilt.
Some of another sort are made of Hare, Raccoon, Bever, or Squirrel-Skins,
which are very warm.  Others again are made of the green Part
of the Skin of a Mallard's Head, which they sew perfectly well together,
their Thread being either the Sinews of a Deer divided very small,
or Silk-Grass.  When these are finish'd, they look very finely,
though they must needs be very troublesome to make.  Some of their great Men,
as Rulers and such, that have Plenty of Deer Skins by them,
will often buy the English-made Coats, which they wear
on Festivals and other Days of Visiting.  Yet none ever buy any Breeches,
saying, that they are too much confin'd in them, which prevents their Speed
in running, &c.

We have some Indians, that are more civilized than the rest,
which wear Hats, Shooes, Stockings, and Breeches, with very tolerable
Linnen Shirts, which is not common amongst these Heathens.
The Paspitank Indians did formerly keep Cattle, and make Butter.

{Civiliz'd Indians.  Hatteras Indians.}
These are them that wear the English Dress.  Whether they
have Cattle now or no, I am not certain; but I am of the Opinion,
that such Inclinations in the Savages should meet with Encouragement,
and every Englishman ought to do them Justice, and not defraud them
of their Land, which has been allotted them formerly by the Government;
for if we do not shew them Examples of Justice and Vertue,
we can never bring them to believe us to be a worthier Race of Men
than themselves.

The Dresses of these People are so different, according to
the Nation that they belong to, that it is impossible to recount
all the whimsical Figures that they sometimes make by their Antick Dresses.
Besides, Carolina is a warm Country, and very mild in its Winters,
to what Virginia, Maryland, Pensylvania, New-York, the Jerseys,
and New-England are; wherefore, our Indians Habit very much differs
from the Dresses that appear amongst the Savages who inhabit
those cold Countries; in regard their chiefest Cloathing for the Winter-Season
is made of the Furs of Bever, Raccoon, and other Northern Furs,
that our Climate is not acquainted withal, they producing some Furs,
as the Monack, Moor, Marten, Black Fox, and others to us unknown.

{Painting for War.}
Their Dress in Peace and War, is quite different.  Besides,
when they go to War, their Hair is comb'd out by the Women,
and done over very much with Bears Grease, and red Root;
with Feathers, Wings, Rings, Copper, and Peak, or Wampum in their Ears.
Moreover, they buy Vermillion of the Indian Traders, wherewith they paint
their Faces all over red, and commonly make a Circle of Black about one Eye,
and another Circle of White about the other, whilst others bedawb their Faces
with Tobacco-Pipe Clay, Lamp-black, black Lead, and divers other Colours,
which they make with the several sorts of Minerals and Earths
that they get in different Parts of the Country, where they hunt and travel.
When these Creatures are thus painted, they make the most frightful Figures
that can be imitated by Men, and seem more like Devils than Humane Creatures.
You may be sure, that they are about some Mischief, when you see them
thus painted; for in all the Hostilities which have ever been acted
against the English at any time, in several of the Plantations of America,
the Savages always appear'd in this Disguize, whereby they might never after
be discover'd, or known by any of the Christians that should happen
to see them after they had made their Escape; for it is impossible,
ever to know an Indian under these Colours, although he has been
at your House a thousand times, and you know him, at other times,
as well as you do any Person living.  As for their Women, they never use
any Paint on their Faces; neither do they ever carry them along with them
into the Field, when they intend any Expedition, leaving them at home
with the old Men and Children.

{Ear Bobs.}
Some of the Indians wear great Bobs in their Ears, and sometimes
in the Holes thereof they put Eagles and other Birds, Feathers, for a Trophy.
When they kill any Fowl, they commonly pluck off the downy Feathers,
and stick them all over their Heads.  Some (both Men and Women)
wear great Necklaces of their Money made of Shells.  They often wear
Bracelets made of Brass, and sometimes of Iron Wire.

{Indian Money.}
Their Money is of different sorts, but all made of Shells,
which are found on the Coast of Carolina, which are very large and hard,
so that they are very difficult to cut.  Some English Smiths
have try'd to drill this sort of Shell-Money, and thereby thought
to get an Advantage; but it prov'd so hard, that nothing could be gain'd.
They oftentimes make, of this Shell, a sort of Gorge, which they wear
about their Neck in a string; so it hangs on their Collar,
whereon sometimes is engraven a Cross, or some odd sort of Figure,
which comes next in their Fancy.  There are other sorts valued at a Doe-Skin,
yet the Gorges will sometimes sell for three or four Buck-Skins ready drest.
There be others, that eight of them go readily for a Doe Skin;
but the general and current Species of all the Indians in Carolina,
and, I believe, all over the Continent, as far as the Bay of Mexico,
is that which we call Peak, and Ronoak; but Peak more especially.
This is that which at New-York, they call Wampum, and have used it
as current Money amongst the Inhabitants for a great many Years.
This is what many Writers call Porcelan, and is made at New-York
in great Quantities, and with us in some measure.  Five Cubits of this
purchase a dress'd Doe-Skin, and seven or eight purchase a dress'd Buck-Skin.
An English-man could not afford to make so much of this Wampum
for five or ten times the Value; for it is made out of a vast great Shell,
of which that Country affords Plenty; where it is ground smaller
than the small End of a Tobacco-Pipe, or a large Wheat-Straw.
Four or five of these make an Inch, and every one is to be drill'd through,
and made as smooth as Glass, and so strung, as Beads are,
and a Cubit of the Indian Measure contains as much in Length,
as will reach from the Elbow to the End of the little Finger.
They never stand to question, whether it is a tall Man, or a short one,
that measures it; but if this Wampum Peak be black or purple,
as some Part of that Shell is, then it is twice the Value.  This the Indians
grind on Stones and other things, till they make it current,
but the Drilling is the most difficult to the English-men,
which the Indians manage with a Nail stuck in a Cane or Reed.
Thus they roll it continually on their Thighs, with their Right-hand,
holding the Bit of Shell with their Left, so in time they drill a Hole
quite through it, which is a very tedious Work; but especially in making
their Ronoak, four of which will scarce make one Length of Wampum.
The Indians are a People that never value their time,
so that they can afford to make them, and never need to fear
the English will take the Trade out of their Hands.  This is the Money
with which you may buy Skins, Furs, Slaves, or any thing the Indians have;
it being the Mammon (as our Money is to us) that entices and persuades them
to do any thing, and part with every thing they possess,
except their Children for Slaves.  As for their Wives, they are often sold,
and their Daughters violated for it.  With this they buy off Murders;
and whatsoever a Man can do that is ill, this Wampum will quit him of,
and make him, in their Opinion, good and vertuous, though never
so black before.

{Indians how named.}
All the Indians give a Name to their Children, which is not the same
as the Father or Mother, but what they fancy.  This Name they keep,
(if Boys) till they arrive to the Age of a Warriour, which is
sixteen or seventeen Years; then they take a Name to themselves, sometimes,
Eagle, Panther, Allegator, or some such wild Creature;
esteeming nothing on Earth worthy to give them a Name,
but these Wild-Fowl, and Beasts.  Some again take the Name of a Fish,
which they keep as long as they live.

{Indian King and Counsellors.  Every Town a Ruler,
yet one over all the Nation.}
The King is the Ruler of the Nation, and has others under him, to assist him,
as his War-Captains, and Counsellors, who are pick'd out and chosen
from among the ancientest Men of the Nation he is King of.
These meet him in all general Councils and Debates, concerning War, Peace,
Trade, Hunting, and all the Adventures and Accidents of Humane Affairs,
which appear within their Verge; where all Affairs are discoursed of
and argued pro and con, very deliberately (without making
any manner of Parties or Divisions) for the Good of the Publick;
for, as they meet there to treat, they discharge their Duty
with all the Integrity imaginable, never looking towards their Own Interest,
before the Publick Good.  After every Man has given his Opinion,
that which has most Voices, or, in Summing up, is found the most reasonable,
that they make use of without any Jars and Wrangling, and put it in Execution,
the first Opportunity that offers.

{Succession how.}
The Succession falls not to the King's Son, but to his Sister's Son,
which is a sure way to prevent Impostors in the Succession.
Sometimes they poison the Heir to make way for another,
which is not seldom done, when they do not approve of the Youth
that is to succeed them.  The King himself is commonly chief Doctor
in that Cure.

They are so well versed in Poison, that they are often found to poison
whole Families; nay, most of a Town; and which is most to be admired,
they will poison a running Spring, or Fountain of Water,
so that whosoever drinks thereof, shall infallible die.
When the Offender is discover'd, his very Relations urge for Death,
whom nothing will appease, but the most cruel Torment imaginable,
which is executed in the most publick Manner that it's possible
to act such a Tragedy in.  For all the whole Nation, and all the Indians
within a hundred Mile (if it is possible to send for them) are summon'd
to come and appear at such a Place and Time, to see and rejoyce at
the Torments and Death of such a Person, who is the common and profess'd Enemy
to all the friendly Indians thereabouts, who now lies under
the Condemnation of the whole Nation, and accordingly is to be put to Death.
Then all appear (young and old) from all the adjacent Parts,
and meet, with all the Expressions of Joy, to consummate
this horrid and barbarous Feast, which is carried on after this dismal Manner.
{Poisoning Indians how punished.}  First, they bring the Prisoner
to the Place appointed for the Execution, where he is set down on his Breech
on the Ground.  Then they all get about him, and you shall not see
one sorrowful or dejected Countenance amongst them, but all
very merrily dispos'd, as if some Comedy was to be acted,
instead of a Tragedy.  He that is appointed to be the chief Executioner,
takes a Knife, and bids him hold out his Hands, which he does,
and then cuts round the Wrist through the Skin, which is drawn off
like a Glove, and flead quite off at the Fingers Ends; then they break
his Joints and Bones, and buffet and torment him after a very inhumane Manner,
till some violent Blow perhaps ends his Days; then they burn him to Ashes,
and throw them down the River.  Afterwards they eat, drink and are merry,
repeating all the Actions of the Tormentors and the Prisoner,
with a great deal of Mirth and Satisfaction.  This Accusation is laid
against an Indian Heroe sometimes wrongfully, or when they have a mind
to get rid of a Man that has more Courage and Conduct than his neighbouring
Kings or great Men; then they alledge the Practice of poisoning Indians
against him, and make a Rehearsal of every Indian that died
for a year or two, and say, that they were poison'd by such an Indian;
which Reports stir up all the Relations of the deceased
against the said Person, and by such means make him away presently.
In some Affairs, these Savages are very reserv'd and politick,
and will attend a long time with a great deal of Patience,
to bring about their Designs; they being never impatient or hasty
in executing any of their Designs of Revenge.

Now I am gone so far in giving an Account of the Indians Temper,
I will proceed; and can give you no other Character of them,
but that they are a very wary People, and are never hasty or impatient.
They will endure a great many Misfortunes, Losses, and Disapointments
without shewing themselves, in the least, vex'd or uneasy.
When they go by Water, if there proves a Head-Wind, they never vex and fret,
as the Europeans do, and let what Misfortune come to them,
as will or can happen, they never relent.  Besides, there is one Vice
very common every where, which I never found amongst them,
which is Envying other Mens Happiness, because their Station is not equal to,
or above, their Neighbours.  Of this Sin I cannot say I ever saw an Example,
though they are a People that set as great a Value upon themselves,
as any sort of Men in the World; upon which Account they find something
Valuable in themselves above Riches.  Thus, he that is a good Warriour,
is the proudest Creature living; and he that is an expert Hunter, is esteem'd
by the People and himself; yet all these are natural Vertues and Gifts,
and not Riches, which are as often in the Possession of a Fool as a Wise-man.
Several of the Indians are possess'd of a great many Skins, Wampum,
Ammunition, and what other things are esteem'd Riches amongst them;
yet such an Indian is no more esteem'd amongst them, than any other
ordinary Fellow, provided he has no personal Endowments, which are
the Ornaments that must gain him an Esteem among them; for a great Dealer,
amongst the Indians, is no otherwise respected and esteemed,
than as a Man that strains his Wits, and fatigues himself, to furnish others
with Necessaries of Life, that live much easier and enjoy more of the World,
than he himself does, with all his Pelf.  {Indians not afraid to die.}
If they are taken Captives, and expect a miserable Exit, they sing;
if Death approach them in Sickness, they are not afraid of it;
nor are ever heard to say, Grant me some time.  They know by Instinct,
and daily Example, that they must die; wherefore, they have
that great and noble Gift, to submit to every thing that happens,
and value nothing that attacks them.

Their Cruelty to their Prisoners of War is what they are seemingly
guilty of an Error in, (I mean as to a natural Failing) because they strive
to invent the most inhumane Butcheries for them, that the Devils themselves
could invent, or hammer out of Hell; they esteeming Death no Punishment,
but rather an Advantage to him, that is exported out of this
into another World.

{Indians Cruelty to Prisoners of War.}
Therefore, they inflict on them Torments, wherein they prolong Life
in that miserable state as long as they can, and never miss Skulping of them,
as they call it, which is, to cut off the Skin from the Temples,
and taking the whole Head of Hair along with it, as if it was a Night-cap.
Sometimes, they take the Top of the Skull along with it; all which
they preserve, and carefully keep by them, for a Trophy of their Conquest
over their Enemies.  Others keep their Enemies Teeth, which are taken in War,
whilst others split the Pitch-Pine into Splinters, and stick them
into the Prisoners Body yet alive.  Thus they light them, which burn like
so many Torches; and in this manner, they make him dance round a great Fire,
every one buffeting and deriding him, till he expires, when every one
strives to get a Bone or some Relick of this unfortunate Captive.
One of the young Fellows, that has been at the Wars, and has had the Fortune
to take a Captive, returns the proudest Creature on Earth,
and sets such a Value on himself, that he knows not how to contain himself
in his Senses.  The Iroquois, or Sinnagers, are the most Warlike Indians
that we know of, being always at War, and not to be persuaded
from that Way of Living, by any Argument that can be used.
If you go to persuade them to live peaceably with the Tuskeruros,
and let them be one People, and in case those Indians desire it,
and will submit to them, they will answer you, that they cannot live
without War, which they have ever been used to; and that if Peace be made
with the Indians they now war withal, they must find out some others
to wage War against; for, for them to live in Peace, is to live
out of their Element, War, Conquest, and Murder, being what they delight in,
and value themselves for.  {Indians flea and cut off part of the Feet.}
When they take a Slave, and intend to keep him to Work in their Fields,
they flea the Skin from the Setting on of his Toes to the middle of his Foot,
so cut off one half of his Feet, wrapping the Skin over the Wounds,
and healing them.  By this cruel Method, the Indian Captive is hinder'd
from making his Escape, for he can neither run fast or go any where,
but his Feet are more easily traced and discover'd.  Yet I know one Man
who made his Escape from them, tho' they had thus disabled him,
as you may see in my Journal.

The Indians ground their Wars on Enmity, not on Interest, as the Europeans
generally do; for the Loss of the meanest Person in the Nation,
they will go to War and lay all at Stake, and prosecute their Design
to the utmost; till the Nation they were injur'd by, be wholly destroy'd,
or make them that Satisfaction which they demand.  They are very politick,
in waging, and carrying on their War, first by advising with
all the ancient Men of Conduct and Reason, that belong to their Nation;
such as superannuated War-Captains, and those that have been Counsellors
for many Years, and whose Advice has commonly succeeded very well.
They have likewise their Field Counsellors, who are accustomed to Ambuscades,
and Surprizes, which Methods are commonly used by the Savages;
for I scarce ever heard of a Field-Battle fought amongst them.

One of their Expeditions afforded an Instance, worthy mention,
which was thus; Two Nations of Indians here in Carolina
were at War together, and a Party of each were in the Forest
ranging to see what Enemies they could take.  The lesser Number
found they were discover'd, and could not well get over a River
(that lay betwixt them and their home) without engaging the other Party,
whose Numbers were much the greater; so they call'd a Council,
which met, and having weigh'd their present Circumstances
with a great deal of Argument and Debate, for a considerable time,
and found their Enemies Advantage, and that they could expect no Success
in Engaging such an unequal Number; they, at last, concluded on
this Stratagem, which, in my Opinion, carried a great deal of Policy
along with it.  {Indian Politicks.}  It was, That the same Night,
they should make a great Fire, which they were certain would be discover'd
by the adverse Party, and there dress up Logs of Wood in their Cloaths,
and make them exactly seem like Indians, that were asleep by the Fireside;
(which is their Way, when in the Woods) so, said they, our Enemies will fire
upon these Images, supposing them to be us, who will lie in Ambuscade,
and, after their Guns are unloaded, shall deal well enough with them.
This Result was immediately put in Execution, and the Fire was made
by the side of a Valley, where they lay perdu very advantageously.
Thus, a little before Break of Day, (which commonly is the Hour
they surprize their Enemies in) the Indians came down to their Fire,
and at once fired in upon those Logs in the Indians Cloaths,
and run up to them, expecting they had kill'd every Man dead;
but they found themselves mistaken, for then the other Indians,
who had lain all the Night stark-naked in the Bottom, attack'd them
with their loaded Pieces, which so surprized them, that every Man
was taken Prisoner, and brought in bound to their Town.

Another Instance was betwixt the Machapunga Indians, and the Coranine's,
on the Sand-Banks; which was as follows.  {Machapunga King Charles.}
The Machapungas were invited to a Feast, by the Coranines;
(which two Nations had been a long time at War together,
and had lately concluded a Peace.)  Thereupon, the Machapunga Indians
took the Advantage of coming to the Coranines Feast, which was
to avoid all Suspicion, and their King, who, of a Savage,
is a great Politician and very stout, order'd all his Men
to carry their Tamahauks along with them, hidden under their Match-Coats,
which they did; and being acquainted when to fall on, by the Word given,
they all (upon this Design) set forward for the Feast, and came to
the Coranine Town, where they had gotten Victuals, Fruit,
and such things as make an Indian Entertainment, all ready
to make these new Friends welcome, which they did; and, after Dinner,
towards the Evening, (as it is customary amongst them) they went to Dancing,
all together; so when the Machapunga King saw the best Opportunity offer,
he gave the Word, and his Men pull'd their Tamahauks or Hatchets
from under their Match-Coats, and kill'd several, and took the rest Prisoners,
except some few that were not present, and about four or five that escap'd.
The Prisoners they sold Slaves to the English.  At the time this was done,
those Indians had nothing but Bows and Arrows, neither side having Guns.

The Indians are very revengeful, and never forget an Injury done,
till they have receiv'd Satisfaction.  Yet they are the freest People
from Heats and Passions (which possess the Europeans) of any
I ever heard of.  {Drunkenness in Indians.}  They never call any Man
to account for what he did, when he was drunk; but say, it was the Drink
that caused his Misbehaviour, therefore he ought to be forgiven:
They never frequent a Christian's House that is given to Passion,
nor will they ever buy or sell with him, if they can get
the same Commodities of any other Person; for they say,
such Men are mad Wolves, and no more Men.

{Indians not Jealous.}
They know not what Jealousy is, because they never think
their Wives are unconstant, unless they are Eye-witnesses thereof.
They are generally very bashful, especially the young Maids,
who when they come into a strange Cabin, where they are not acquainted,
never ask for any thing, though never so hungry or thirsty,
but sit down, without speaking a Word (be it never so long)
till some of the House asks them a Question, or falls into Discourse,
with the Stranger.  I never saw a Scold amongst them, and to their Children
they are extraordinary tender and indulgent; neither did I ever see
a Parent correct a Child, excepting one Woman, that was the King's Wife,
and she (indeed) did possess a Temper that is not commonly found amongst them.
{Indians Complements.}  They are free from all manner of Compliments,
except Shaking of Hands, and Scratching on the Shoulder,
which two are the greatest Marks of Sincerity and Friendship,
that can be shew'd one to another.  They cannot express fare you well;
but when they leave the House, will say, I go straightway,
which is to intimate their Departure; and if the Man of the House
has any Message to send by the going Man, he may acquaint him therewith.
Their Tongue allows not to say, Sir, I am your Servant;
because they have no different Titles for Man, only King, War-Captain,
Old Man, or Young Man, which respect the Stations and Circumstances
Men are employ'd in, and arriv'd to, and not Ceremony.  As for Servant,
they have no such thing, except Slave, and their Dogs, Cats,
tame or domestick Beasts, and Birds, are call'd by the same Name:
For the Indian Word for Slave includes them all.  So when an Indian
tells you he has got a Slave for you, it may (in general Terms, as they use)
be a young Eagle, a Dog, Otter, or any other thing of that Nature,
which is obsequiously to depend on the Master for its Sustenance.

{Indians not afraid of Spirits.}
They are never fearful in the Night, nor do the Thoughts of Spirits
ever trouble them; such as the many Hobgoblins and Bugbears that we suck in
with our Milk, and the Foolery of our Nurses and Servants suggest to us;
who by their idle Tales of Fairies, and Witches, make such Impressions
on our tender Years, that at Maturity, we carry Pigmies Souls,
in Giants Bodies, and ever after are thereby so much depriv'd of Reason,
and unman'd, as never to be Masters of half the Bravery
Nature design'd for us.

Not but that the Indians have as many Lying Stories
of Spirits and Conjurers, as any People in the World; but they tell it
with no Disadvantage to themselves; for the great Esteem
which the Old Men bring themselves to, is by making the others believe
their Familiarity with Devils and Spirits, and how great a Correspondence
they have therewith, which if it once gains Credit, they ever after are held
in the greatest Veneration imaginable, and whatever they after impose
upon the People, is receiv'd as infallible.  They are so little startled
at the Thoughts of another World, that they not seldom murder themselves;
as for Instance, a Bear-River Indian, a very likely young Fellow,
about twenty Years of Age, whose Mother was angry at his drinking
of too much Rum, and chid him for it, thereupon reply'd,
he would have her satisfied, and he would do the like no more;
upon which he made his Words good; for he went aside, and shot himself dead.
This was a Son of the politick King of the Machapunga, I spoke of before,
and has the most Cunning of any Indian I ever met withal.

Most of the Savages are much addicted to Drunkenness, a Vice
they never were acquainted with, till the Christians came amongst them.
Some of them refrain drinking strong Liquors, but very few of that sort
are found amongst them.  Their chief Liquor is Rum, without any Mixture.
This the English bring amongst them, and buy Skins, Furs,
Slaves and other of their Commodities therewith.  They never are contented
with a little, but when once begun, they must make themselves quite drunk;
otherwise they will never rest, but sell all they have in the World,
rather than not have their full Dose.  In these drunken Frolicks,
(which are always carried on in the Night) they sometimes murder one another,
fall into the Fire, fall down Precipices, and break their Necks,
with several other Misfortunes which this drinking of Rum brings upon them;
and tho' they are sensible of it, yet they have no Power
to refrain this Enemy.  About five years ago, when Landgrave Daniel
was Governour, he summon'd in all the Indian Kings and Rulers to meet,
and in a full Meeting of the Government and Council, with those Indians,
they agreed upon a firm Peace, and the Indian Rulers desired
no Rum might be sold to them, which was granted, and a Law made,
that inflicted a Penalty on those that sold Rum to the Heathens;
but it was never strictly observ'd, and besides, the young Indians
were so disgusted at that Article, that they threatned to kill the Indians
that made it, unless it was laid aside, and they might have Rum sold them,
when they went to the Englishmens Houses to buy it.

Some of the Heathens are so very poor, that they have no Manner of Cloaths,
save a Wad of Moss to hide their Nakedness.  These are either lusty
and will not work; otherwise, they are given to Gaming or Drunkenness;
yet these get Victuals as well as the rest, because that is common
amongst them.  If they are caught in theft they are Slaves till they repay
the Person, (as I mention'd before) but to steal from the English
they reckon no Harm.  Not but that I have known some few Savages
that have been as free from Theft as any of the Christians.
When they have a Design to lie with a Woman, which they cannot obtain
any otherwise than by a larger Reward than they are able to give,
they then strive to make her drunk, which a great many of them will be;
then they take the Advantage, to do with them what they please,
and sometimes in their Drunkenness, cut off their Hair and sell it
to the English, which is the greatest Affront can be offer'd them.
They never value Time; for if they be going out to hunt, fish,
or any other indifferent Business, you may keep them in talk
as long as you please, so you but keep them in Discourse, and seem pleased
with their Company; yet none are more expeditious and safer Messengers
than they, when any extraordinary Business that they are sent about
requires it.

{Not pass over a Tree.}
When they are upon travelling the Woods, they keep a constant Pace,
neither will they stride over a Tree that lies cross the Path, but always
go round it, which is quite contrary to the Custom of the English,
and other Europeans.  {Cut with a Knife how.  A Knife of Reed.}
When they cut with a Knife, the Edge is towards them, whereas we
always cut and whittle from us.  {Not left-handed.}  Nor did I ever see
one of them left-handed.  {Get Fire how.}  Before the Christians
came amongst them, not knowing the Use of Steel and Flints,
they got their Fire with Sticks, which by vehement Collision,
or Rubbing together, take Fire.  This Method they will sometimes practise now,
when it has happen'd thro' rainy Weather, or some other Accident,
that they have wet their Spunk, which is a sort of soft corky Substance,
generally of a Cinnamon Colour, and grows in the concave part of an Oak,
Hiccory, and several other Woods, being dug out with an Ax,
and always kept by the Indians, instead of Tinder or Touch-wood,
both which it exceeds.  You are to understand, that the two Sticks
they use to strike Fire withal, are never of one sort of Wood,
but always differ from each other.

They are expert Travellers, and though they have not the Use
of our artificial Compass, yet they understand the North-point exactly,
let them be in never so great a Wilderness.  One Guide is a short Moss,
that grows upon some Trees, exactly on the North-Side thereof.

{Indian Compass.}
Besides, they have Names for eight of the thirty two Points,
and call the Winds by their several Names, as we do; but indeed more properly,
for the North-West Wind is called the cold Wind; the North-East the wet Wind;
the South the warm Wind; and so agreeably of the rest.  Sometimes it happens,
that they have a large River or Lake to pass over, and the Weather
is very foggy, as it often happens in the Spring and Fall of the Leaf;
so that they cannot see which Course to steer:  In such a Case,
they being on one side of the River, or Lake, they know well enough
what Course such a Place (which they intend for) bears from them.
Therefore, they get a great many Sticks and Chunks of Wood in their Canoe,
and then set off directly for their Port, and now and then throw over
a Piece of Wood, which directs them, by seeing how the Stick bears
from the Canoes Stern, which they always observe to keep right aft;
and this is the Indian Compass by which they will go over
a broad Water of ten or twenty Leagues wide.  They will find
the Head of any River, though it is five, six or seven hundred miles off,
and they never were there, in their Lives before; as is often prov'd,
by their appointing to meet on the Head of such a River, where perhaps,
none of them ever was before, but where they shall rendezvous exactly
at the prefixt time; and if they meet with any Obstruction,
they leave certain Marks in the Way, where they that come after
will understand how many have pass'd by already, and which way they are gone.
Besides, in their War Expeditions, they have very certain Hieroglyphicks,
whereby each Party informs the other of the Success or Losses
they have met withal; all which is so exactly perform'd
by their Sylvian Marks and Characters, that they are never at a Loss
to understand one another.  Yet there was never found any Letters
amongst the Savages of Carolina; nor, I believe, among any other Natives
in America, that were possess'd with any manner of Writing or Learning
throughout all the Discoveries of the New-World.  {Indians make Maps.}
They will draw Maps, very exactly, of all the Rivers, Towns, Mountains,
and Roads, or what you shall enquire of them, which you may draw
by their Directions, and come to a small matter of Latitude,
reckoning by their Days Journeys.  These Maps they will draw
in the Ashes of the Fire, and sometimes upon a Mat or Piece of Bark.
I have put a Pen and Ink into a Savage's Hand, and he has drawn me
the Rivers, Bays, and other Parts of a Country, which afterwards
I have found to agree with a great deal of Nicety:  But you must be very much
in their Favour, otherwise they will never make these Discoveries to you;
especially, if it be in their own Quarters.  {No Discovery of Mines.}
And as for Mines of Silver and other Metals, we are satisfied we have enow,
and those very rich, in Carolina and its adjacent Parts; some of which
the Indians are acquainted withal, although no Enquirers thereafter,
but what came, and were discover'd, by Chance; yet they say, it is this Metal
that the English covet, as they do their Peak and Ronoak;
and that we have gain'd Ground of them wherever we have come.
Now, say they, if we should discover these Minerals to the English,
they would settle at or near these Mountains, and bereave us
of the best Hunting-Quarters we have, as they have already done
wherever they have inhabited; so by that means, we shall be driven
to some unknown Country, to live, hunt, and get our Bread in.
These are the Reasons that the Savages give, for not making known
what they are acquainted withal, of that Nature.  And indeed,
all Men that have ever gone upon those Discoveries, allow them to be good;
{Mr. Mitchell.} more especially, my ingenious Friend
Mr. Francis-Louis Mitchell, of Bern in Switzerland, who has been,
for several Years, very indefatigable and strict in his Discoveries
amongst those vast Ledges of Mountains, and spacious Tracts of Land,
lying towards the Heads of the great Bays and Rivers of Virginia, Maryland,
and Pensylvania, where he has discover'd a spacious Country
inhabited by none but the Savages, and not many of them;
who yet are of a very friendly Nature to the Christians.  This Gentleman
has been employ'd by the Canton of Bern, to find out a Tract of Land
in the English America, where that Republick might settle
some of their People; which Proposal, I believe, is now in a fair way
towards a Conclusion, between her Majesty of Great-Britain and that Canton.
{Switzers Settlement in America.}  Which must needs be of great Advantage
to both; and as for ourselves, I believe, no Man that is in his Wits,
and understands the Situation and Affairs of America,
but will allow, nothing can be of more Security and Advantage
to the Crown and Subjects of Great-Britain, than to have our Frontiers
secured by a warlike People, and our Friends, as the Switzers are;
especially when we have more Indians than we can civilize,
and so many Christian Enemies lying on the back of us, that we do not know
how long or short a time it may be, before they visit us.  Add to these,
the Effects and Product that may be expected from those Mountains;
which may hereafter prove of great Advantage to the British Monarchy,
and none more fit than an industrious People, bred in a mountainous Country,
and inur'd to all the Fatigues of War and Travel, to improve a Country.
Thus we have no room to doubt, but as soon as any of those Parts
are seated by the Switzers, a great many Britains will strive
to live amongst them, for the Benefit of the sweet Air and healthful Climate,
which that Country affords, were it only for the Cultivating of Hemp,
Flax, Wine, and other valuable Staples, which those People
are fully acquainted withal:  Not to mention the Advantages
already discover'd by that worthy Gentleman I just now spoke of,
who is highly deserving of the Conduct and Management of such an Affair,
as that wise Canton has entrusted him withal.

{Hunting of the Savages.}
When these Savages go a hunting, they commonly go out in great Numbers,
and oftentimes a great many Days Journey from home, beginning at
the coming in of the Winter; that is, when the Leaves are fallen
from the Trees, and are become dry.  'Tis then they burn the Woods,
by setting Fire to the Leaves, and wither'd Bent and Grass,
{Moss Match.} which they do with a Match made of the black Moss
that hangs on the Trees in Carolina, and is sometimes above six Foot long.
This, when dead, becomes black, (tho' of an Ash-Colour before)
and will then hold Fire as well as the best Match we have in Europe.
In Places, where this Moss is not found, (as towards the Mountains)
they make Lintels of the Bark of Cypress beaten, which serve as well.
Thus they go and fire the Woods for many Miles, and drive
the Deer and other Game into small Necks of Land and Isthmus's,
where they kill and destroy what they please.  In these Hunting-Quarters,
they have their Wives and Ladies of the Camp, where they eat
all the Fruits and Dainties of that Country, and live in all
the Mirth and Jollity, which it is possible for such People
to entertain themselves withal.  Here it is, that they get
their Complement of Deer-Skins and Furs to trade with the English,
(the Deer-Skins being in Season in Winter, which is contrary to England.)
All small Game, as Turkeys, Ducks, and small Vermine, they commonly kill
with Bow and Arrow, thinking it not worth throwing Powder and Shot after them.
Of Turkeys they have abundance; especially, in Oak-Land,
as most of it is, that lies any distance backwards.  I have been often
in their Hunting-Quarters, where a roasted or barbakued Turkey,
eaten with Bears Fat, is held a good Dish; and indeed, I approve of it
very well; for the Bears Grease is the sweetest and least offensive
to the Stomach (as I said before) of any Fat of Animals I ever tasted.
{Beating of Corn.}  The Savage Men never beat their Corn to make Bread;
but that is the Womens Work, especially the Girls, of whom you shall see
four beating with long great Pestils in a narrow wooden Mortar;
and every one keeps her Stroke so exactly, that 'tis worthy of Admiration.
Their Cookery continues from Morning till Night.  The Hunting
makes them hungry; and the Indians are a People that always
eat very often, not seldom getting up at Midnight, to eat.
They plant a great many sorts of Pulse, Part of which they eat green
in the Summer, keeping great Quantities for their Winter-Store,
which they carry along with them into the Hunting-Quarters, and eat them.

The small red Pease is very common with them, and they eat
a great deal of that and other sorts boil'd with their Meat,
or eaten with Bears Fat, which Food makes them break Wind backwards,
which the Men frequently do, and laugh heartily at it, it being accounted
no ill Manners amongst the Indians:  Yet the Women are more modest,
than to follow that ill Custom.  At their setting out, they have Indians
to attend their Hunting-Camp, that are not good and expert Hunters;
{Servile Indians.} therefore are employ'd to carry Burdens,
to get Bark for the Cabins, and other Servile Work; also to go
backward and forward, to their Towns, to carry News to the old People,
whom they leave behind them.  The Women are forced to carry
their Loads of Grain and other Provisions, and get Fire-Wood;
for a good Hunter, or Warriour in these Expeditions, is employ'd
in no other Business, than the Affairs of Game and Battle.
{Dry'd Fruits.}  The wild Fruits which are dry'd in the Summer, over Fires,
on Hurdles and in the Sun, are now brought into the Field; as are likewise
the Cakes and Quiddonies of Peaches, and that Fruit and Bilberries dry'd,
of which they stew and make Fruit-Bread and Cakes.  {Pigeons Fat.}
In some parts, where Pigeons are plentiful, they get of their Fat
enough to supply their Winter Stores.  Thus they abide in these Quarters,
all the Winter long, till the Time approach for planting
their Maiz and other Fruits.  {Bowls and Tobacco-Pipes to make.  Dress Skins.}
In these quarters, at Spare-hours, the Women make Baskets and Mats
to lie upon, and those that are not extraordinary Hunters,
make Bowls, Dishes, and Spoons, of Gum-wood, and the Tulip-Tree;
others (where they find a Vein of white Clay, fit for their purpose)
make Tobacco-pipes, all which are often transported to other Indians,
that perhaps have greater Plenty of Deer and other Game;
so they buy (with these Manufactures) their raw Skins, with the Hair on,
which our neighbouring Indians bring to their Towns,
and, in the Summer-time, make the Slaves and sorry Hunters dress them,
the Winter-Sun being not strong enough to dry them; and those
that are dry'd in the Cabins are black and nasty with the Lightwood Smoke,
which they commonly burn.  Their Way of dressing their Skins
is by soaking them in Water, so they get the Hair off, with an Instrument
made of the Bone of a Deer's Foot; yet some use a sort of Iron Drawing-Knife,
which they purchase of the English, and after the Hair is off,
they dissolve Deers Brains, (which beforehand are made in a Cake
and baked in the Embers) in a Bowl of Water, so soak the Skins therein,
till the Brains have suck'd up the Water; then they dry it gently,
and keep working it with an Oyster-Shell, or some such thing,
to scrape withal, till it is dry; whereby it becomes soft and pliable.
Yet these so dress'd will not endure wet, but become hard thereby;
which to prevent, they either cure them in the Smoke,
or tan them with Bark, as before observ'd; not but that young Indian Corn,
beaten to a Pulp, will effect the same as the Brains.  They are not only
good Hunters of the wild Beasts and Game of the Forest, but very expert
in taking the Fish of the Rivers and Waters near which they inhabit,
and are acquainted withal.  {Fish to strike.}  Thus they that live
a great way up the Rivers practise Striking Sturgeon and Rock-fish, or Bass,
when they come up the Rivers to spawn; besides the vast Shoals of Sturgeon
which they kill and take with Snares, as we do Pike in Europe.  The Herrings
in March and April run a great way up the Rivers and fresh Streams
to spawn, where the Savages make great Wares, with Hedges
that hinder their Passage only in the Middle, where an artificial Pound
is made to take them in; so that they cannot return.  This Method is in use
all over the fresh Streams, to catch Trout and the other Species of Fish
which those Parts afford.  {Craw-fish to take.}  Their taking of Craw-fish
is so pleasant, that I cannot pass it by without mention;
When they have a mind to get these Shell-fish, they take a Piece of Venison,
and half-barbakue or roast it; then they cut it into thin Slices,
which Slices they stick through with Reeds about six Inches asunder,
betwixt Piece and Piece; then the Reeds are made sharp at one end;
and so they stick a great many of them down in the bottom of the Water
(thus baited) in the small Brooks and Runs, which the Craw-fish frequent.
Thus the Indians sit by, and tend those baited Sticks,
every now and then taking them up, to see how many are at the Bait;
where they generally find abundance; so take them off,
and put them in a Basket for the purpose, and stick the Reeds down again.
By this Method, they will, in a little time, catch several Bushels,
which are as good, as any I ever eat.  {Hatteras Indians.}
Those Indians that frequent the Salt-Waters, take abundance of Fish,
some very large, and of several sorts, which to preserve,
they first barbakue, then pull the Fish to Pieces, so dry it in the Sun,
whereby it keeps for Transportation; as for Scate, Oysters, Cockles,
and several sorts of Shell-fish, they open and dry them upon Hurdles,
having a constant Fire under them.  The Hurdles are made of Reeds or Canes
in the shape of a Gridiron.  Thus they dry several Bushels of these Fish,
and keep them for their Necessities.  At the time when they are on the Salts,
and Sea Coasts, they have another Fishery, that is for a little Shell-fish,
{Blackmoor Teeth.} which those in England call Blackmoors Teeth.
These they catch by tying Bits of Oysters to a long String,
which they lay in such places, as, they know, those Shell-Fish haunt.
These Fish get hold of the Oysters, and suck them in, so that they pull up
those long Strings, and take great Quantities of them, which they carry
a great way into the main Land, to trade with the remote Indians,
where they are of great Value; but never near the Sea, by reason
they are common, therefore not esteem'd.  Besides, the Youth and Indian Boys
go in the Night, and one holding a Lightwood Torch, the other has
a Bow and Arrows, and the Fire directing him to see the Fish, he shoots them
with the Arrows; and thus they kill a great many of the smaller Fry,
and sometimes pretty large ones.  {Indians not eat of the first he kills.}
It is an establish'd Custom amongst all these Natives,
that the young Hunter never eats of that Buck, Bear, Fish, or any other Game,
which happens to be the first they kill of that sort; because they believe,
if he should eat thereof, he would never after be fortunate in Hunting.
{Big bellied Woman never eat of the first Fish caught in a Ware.}
The like foolish Ceremony they hold, when they have made a Ware
to take Fish withal; if a big-belly'd Woman eat of the first Dish
that is caught in it, they say, that Ware will never take much Fish;
{Indians not kill Snakes why.} and as for killing of Snakes,
they avoid it, if they lie in their way, because their Opinion is,
that some of the Serpents Kindred would kill some of the Savages Relations,
that should destroy him:  They have thousands of these foolish
Ceremonies and Beliefs, which they are strict Observers of.
Moreover, several Customs are found in some Families, which others keep not;
{Circumcision.} as for Example, two Families of the Machapunga Indians,
use the Jewish Custom of Circumcision, and the rest do not;
neither did I ever know any others amongst the Indians,
that practis'd any such thing; and perhaps, if you ask them,
what is the Reason they do so, they will make you no Manner of Answer;
which is as much as to say, I will not tell you.  Many other Customs
they have, for which they will render no Reason or Account;
and to pretend to give a true Description of their Religion, it is impossible;
for there are a great many of their Absurdities, which, for some Reason,
they reserve as a Secret amongst themselves; or otherwise,
they are jealous of their Weakness in the practising them;
so that they never acquaint any Christian with the Knowledge thereof,
let Writers pretend what they will; {Indian Idols give an account of.}
for I have known them amongst their Idols and dead Kings
in their Quiogozon for several Days, where I could never get Admittance,
to see what they were doing, though I was at great Friendship
with the King and great Men; but all my Persuasions avail'd me nothing.
Neither were any but the King, with the Conjurer, and some few old Men,
in that House; as for the young Men, and chiefest Numbers of the Indians,
they were kept as ignorant of what the Elders were doing, as myself.

{The World is round.}
They all believe, that this World is round, and that there are two Spirits;
the one good, the other bad:  {What they believe of God.
Their offering Idols.}  The good one they reckon to be
the Author and Maker of every thing, and say, that it is he,
that gives them the Fruits of the Earth, and has taught them to hunt, fish,
and be wise enough to overpower the Beasts of the Wilderness,
and all other Creatures, that they may be assistant, and beneficial to Man;
to which they add, that the Quera, or good Spirit, has been very kind
to the English Men, to teach them to make Guns, and Ammunition,
besides a great many other Necessaries, that are helpful to Man,
all which, they say, will be deliver'd to them, when that good Spirit
sees fit.  They do not believe, that God punishes any Man
either in this Life, or that to come; but that he delights in doing good,
and in giving the Fruits of the Earth, and instructing us in making
several useful and ornamental things.  {Devil what.}  They say,
it is a bad Spirit (who lives separate from the good one)
that torments us with Sicknesses, Disappointments, Losses, Hunger, Travel,
and all the Misfortunes, that Humane Life is incident to.
How they are treated in the next World, I have already mention'd,
and, as I said before, they are very resolute in dying,
when in the Hands of Savage Enemies; yet I saw one of their young Men,
a very likely Person, condemn'd, on a Sunday, for Killing a Negro,
and burning the House.  {Indian condemn'd.}  I took good Notice
of his Behaviour, when he was brought out of the House to die,
which was the next Morning after Sentence, but he chang'd his Countenance
with Trembling, and was in the greatest Fear and Agony.  I never saw
any Person under his Circumstances, which, perhaps, might be occasion'd
by his being deliver'd up by his own Nation (which was the Tuskeruro's)
and executed by us, that are not their common Enemies, though he met
with more Favour than he would have receiv'd at the Hands of Savages;
for he was only hang'd on a Tree, near the Place where the Murder
was committed; and the three Kings, that but the day before
shew'd such a Reluctancy to deliver him up, (but would have given another
in his Room) when he was hang'd, pull'd him by the Hand, and said,
`Thou wilt never play any more Rogues Tricks in this World;
whither art thou gone to shew thy Tricks now?'  Which shews these Savages
to be what they really are, (viz) a People that will save their own Men
if they can, but if the Safety of all the People lies at Stake, they will
deliver up the most innocent Person living, and be so far from Concern,
when they have made themselves easy thereby, that they will laugh
at their Misfortunes, and never pity or think of them more.

{Indian Conjurers.}
Their Priests are the Conjurers and Doctors of the Nation.
I shall mention some of their Methods, and Practices; and so leave them
to the Judgment of the Reader.  As I told you before, the Priests make
their Orations at every Feast, or other great Meeting of the Indians.
{Indian Lightning, at Chattooka, at a Feast for rebuilding
a King's House burnt.}  I happen'd to be at one of these great Meetings,
which was at the Funeral of a Tuskeruro Indian, that was slain
with Lightning at a Feast, the day before, where I was amongst the rest;
it was in July, and a very fair day, where, in the Afternoon,
about six or seven a Clock, as they were dealing out their Victuals,
there appear'd a little black Cloud to the North West,
which spread and brought with it Rain, Wind and Lightning;
so we went out from the Place where we were all at Victuals,
and went down to the Cabins where I left the Indians, and went to lie
in my Canoe, which was convenient enough to keep me dry.
The Lightning came so terrible, and down in long Streams,
that I was afraid it would have taken hold of a Barrel of Powder
I had in my Vessel, and so blown me up; but it pleas'd God,
that it did me no Harm; yet the Violence of the Wind had blown
all the Water away, where I rid at Anchor, so that my Canoe lay dry,
and some Indian Women came with Torches in their Hands
to the side of the Canoe, and told me, an Indian was kill'd with Lightning.
The next day, (I think) he was buried, and I stay'd to see the Ceremony,
and was very tractable to help the Indians to trim their Reeds,
and make the Coffin, which pleased them very much, because I had a mind
to see the Interment.  Before he was Interr'd according to their Custom,
they dealt every one some hot Victuals, which he took and did
what he would with:  Then the Doctor began to talk, and told the People
what Lightning was, and that it kill'd every thing that dwelt upon the Earth;
nay, the very Fishes did not escape; for it often reach'd
the Porpoises and other Fish, and destroy'd them; that every thing
strove to shun it, except the Mice, who, he said, were the busiest
in eating their Corn in the Fields, when it lightned the most.
He added, that no Wood or Tree could withstand it, except the black Gum,
and that it would run round that Tree a great many times, to enter therein,
but could not effect it.  Now you must understand, that sort of Gum will not
split or rive; therefore, I suppose, the Story might arise from thence.
At last, he began to tell the most ridiculous absurd Parcel of Lyes
about Lightning, that could be; as that an Indian of that Nation
had once got Lightning in the Likeness of a Partridge;
That no other Lightning could harm him, whilst he had that about him;
and that after he had kept it for several Years, it got away from him;
so that he then became as liable to be struck with Lightning,
as any other Person.  There was present at the same time,
an Indian that had liv'd from his Youth, chiefly in an English House;
so I call'd to him, and told him, what a Parcel of Lyes the Conjurer told,
not doubting but he thought so, as well as I, but I found to the contrary;
for he reply'd, that I was much mistaken, for that old Man
(who, I believe was upwards of an hundred Years old) did never tell Lyes;
and as for what he said, it was very true; for he knew it himself to be so.
{How hard it is to bring the Indians from their Superstition.}
Thereupon, seeing the Fellow's Ignorance, I talk'd no more about it.
{Rattle-Snake kill Indians in Canoes.  Eagles kill it.}
Then the Doctor proceeded to tell a long Tale of a great Rattle-Snake,
which, a great while ago, liv'd by a Creek in that River
(which was Neus) and that it kill'd abundance of Indians;
but at last, a bald Eagle kill'd it, and they were rid of a Serpent,
that us'd to devour whole Canoes full of Indians, at a time.
I have been something tedious upon this Subject, on purpose to shew
what strange ridiculous Stories these Wretches are inclinable to believe.
I suppose, these Doctors understand a little better themselves,
than to give Credit to any such Fooleries; for I reckon them
the cunningest Knaves in all the Pack.  I will therefore begin with
their Physick and Surgery, which is next:  {Indian Physick and Surgery.}
You must know, that the Doctors or Conjurers, to gain a greater Credit
amongst these People, tell them, that all Distempers are
the Effects of evil Spirits, or the bad Spirit, which has struck them
with this or that Malady; therefore, none of these Physicians
undertakes any Distemper, but that he comes to an Exorcism,
to effect the Cure, and acquaints the sick Party's Friends,
that he must converse with the good Spirit, to know whether the Patient
will recover or not; if so, then he will drive out the bad Spirit,
and the Patient will become well.  Now, the general way of their Behaviour
in curing the Sick, (a great deal of which I have seen,
and shall give some Account thereof, in as brief a manner as possible) is,
when an Indian is sick, if they think there is much Danger of Life,
and that he is a great Man or hath good Friends, the Doctor is sent for.
As soon as the Doctor comes into the Cabin, the sick Person is sat
on a Mat or Skin, stark-naked, lying on his Back, and all uncover'd,
except some small Trifle that covers their Nakedness when ripe,
otherwise in very young Children, there is nothing about them.
{Conjuring over the Sick.}  In this manner, the Patient lies,
when the Conjurer appears; and the King of that Nation comes to attend him
with a Rattle made of a Gourd with Pease in it.  This the King delivers
into the Doctor's Hand, whilst another brings a Bowl of Water,
and sets it down:  Then the Doctor begins, and utters some few Words
very softly; afterwards he smells of the Patient's Navel and Belly,
and sometimes scarifies him a little with a Flint, or an Instrument
made of Rattle-Snakes Teeth for that purpose; then he sucks the Patient,
and gets out a Mouthful of Blood and Serum, but Serum chiefly;
which, perhaps, may be a better Method in many Cases, than to take away
great Quantities of Blood, as is commonly practis'd; which he spits
in the Bowl of Water.  Then he begins to mutter, and talk apace,
and, at last, to cut Capers, and clap his Hands on his Breech and Sides,
till he gets into a Sweat, so that a Stranger would think he was running mad;
now and then sucking the Patient, and so, at times, keeps sucking,
till he has got a great Quantity of very ill-coloured Matter out of the Belly,
Arms, Breast, Forehead, Temples, Neck, and most Parts, still continuing
his Grimaces, and antick Postures, which are not to be match'd in Bedlam:
At last, you will see the Doctor all over of a dropping Sweat,
and scarce able to utter one Word, having quite spent himself;
then he will cease for a while, and so begin again, till he comes
in the same Pitch of Raving and seeming Madness, as before,
(all this time the sick Body never so much as moves, although, doubtless,
the Lancing and Sucking must be a great Punishment to them;
but they, certainly, are the patientest and most steady People
under any Burden, that I ever saw in my Life.)  {Whether live or die.}
At last, the Conjurer makes an end, and tells the Patient's Friends,
whether the Person will live or die; {Bury the Serum.}
and then one that waits at this Ceremony, takes the Blood away,
(which remains in a Lump, in the middle of the Water) and buries it
in the Ground, in a Place unknown to any one, but he that inters it.
Now, I believe a great deal of Imposture in these Fellows;
yet I never knew their Judgment fail, though I have seen them
give their Opinion after this Manner, several times:  Some affirm,
that there is a smell of Brimstone in the Cabins, when they are Conjuring,
which I cannot contradict.  Which way it may come, I will not argue,
but proceed to a Relation or two, which I have from a great many Persons,
and some of them worthy of Credit.

{Indian Robbery.}
The first is, of a certain Indian, that one rainy Night, undermin'd a House
made of Logs, (such as the Swedes in America very often make,
and are very strong) which belong'd to Seth Southwell, Esq;
Governor of North-Carolina, and one of the Proprietors.
There was but one place the Indian could get in at, which was very narrow;
the rest was secur'd, by having Barrels of Pork and other Provisions
set against the side of the House, so that if this Indian
had not exactly hit the very Place he undermin'd, it had been impossible
for him to have got therein, because of the full Barrels that stood
round the House, and barricadoed it within.  The Indian stole
sixty or eighty dress'd Deer-Skins, besides Blankets, Powder, Shot and Rum,
(this being the Indian Store-House, where the Trading Goods were kept.)
Now, the Indian had made his Escape, but dropt some of the Skins by the way,
and they track'd his Foot-steps, and found him to be an Indian;
then they guess'd who it was, because none but that Indian
had lately been near the House.  Thereupon, the Governor sent
to the Indian Town that he belong'd to, which was the Tuskeruro's,
and acquainted them that if they did not deliver up the Indian,
who had committed the Robbery, he would take a Course with them,
that would not be very agreeable.  Upon this, the Indians of the Town
he belong'd to, brought him in bound, and deliver'd him up to the Governor,
who laid him in Irons.  At the same time, it happen'd,
that a Robbery was committed amongst themselves, at the Indian Town,
and this Prisoner was one of their Conjurers; so the Indians came down
to the Governor's House, and acquainted him with what had happen'd
amongst them, and that a great Quantity of Peak, was stoln away
out of one of their Cabins, and no one could find out the Thief,
unless he would let the Prisoner conjure for it, who was the only Man they had
at making such Discoveries.  The Governor was content he should try
his Skill for them, but not to have the Prisoners Irons taken off,
which was very well approved of.  The Indian was brought out in his Fetters,
where were the Governor's Family, and several others of the Neighbourhood,
now living, to see this Experiment; which he perform'd thus:

{Conjuring for stoln Goods.}
The Conjurer order'd three Fires to be made in a triangular Form,
which was accordingly done; then he was hoodwink'd very securely,
with a dress'd Deer-Skin, two or three doubles, over his Face.
After he had made some Motions, as they always do, he went directly
out of one of the three Gaps, as exactly as if he had not been blindfolded,
and kept muttering to himself, having a Stick in his Hand,
with which, after some time, he struck two Strokes very hard upon the Ground,
and made thereon a Cross, after which he told the Indian's Name
that had stoln the Goods, and said, that he would have a Cross on his Back;
which prov'd true; for when they took and search'd him, there appear'd
two great Wheals on his Back, one cross the other; for the Thief
was at Governor Southwell's House, and was under no Apprehension
of being discover'd.  The Indians proffer'd to sell him as a Slave
to the Governor, but he refused to buy him; so they took him bound away.

Another Instance, of the like Nature, happen'd at the same House.
One of the Tuskeruro Kings had brought in a Slave to the same Governor,
to whom he had sold him; and before he return'd, fell sick
at the Governor's House; upon which, the Doctor that belong'd
to this King's Nation, was sent for, being a Man that was held to be
the greatest Conjurer amongst them.  It was three Days,
before he could arrive, and he appear'd (when he came) to be
a very little Man, and so old, that his Hair was as white as ever was seen.
When he approach'd the sick King, he order'd a Bowl of Water
to be brought him, and three Chunks of Wood, which was immediately done.
Then he took the Water, and set it by him, and spurted a little on him,
and with the three Pieces of Wood, he made a Place to stand on,
whereby he was rais'd higher; (he being a very low statur'd Man) then he took
a String of Ronoak, which is the same as a String of small Beads;
this he held by one End, between his Fingers; the other End touch'd
the King's Stomach, as he stood on the Logs.  Then he began to talk,
and at length, the By-standers thought really, that they heard somebody
talk to him, but saw no more than what first came in.  At last,
this String of Beads, which hung thus perpendicular, turn'd up
as an Eel would do, and without any Motion of his, they came all up
(in a lump) under his Hand, and hung so for a considerable time,
he never closing his Hand, and at length return'd to their pristine
Length and Shape, at which the Spectators were much frightned.
Then he told the Company, that he would recover, and that his Distemper
would remove into his Leg, all which happen'd to be exactly
as the Indian Doctor had told.  These are Matters of Fact, and I can,
at this day, prove the Truth thereof by several substantial Evidences,
that are Men of Reputation, there being more than a dozen People present,
when this was perform'd; most of whom are now alive.

There are a great many other Stories, of this Nature,
which are seemingly true, being told by Persons that affirm
they were Eye-Witnesses thereof; as, that they have seen one Roncommock
(a Chuwou Indian, and a great Conjurer) take a Reed about two Foot long
in his Mouth, and stand by a Creek-side, where he call'd twice or thrice
with the Reed in his Mouth; and, at last, has open'd his Arms,
and fled over the Creek, which might be near a quarter of a Mile wide or more;
but I shall urge no Man's Belief, but tell my own; which is, that I believe
the two first Accounts, which were acted at Mr. Southwell's Plantation,
as firmly as any Man can believe any thing of that which is told him
by honest Men, and he has not seen; not at all doubting
the Credit of my Authors.

The Cures I have seen perform'd by the Indians, are too many
to repeat here; so I shall only mention some few, and their Method.
{Scald Head cured.}  They cure Scald-heads infallibly, and never miss.
Their chief Remedy as I have seen them make use of, is, the Oil of Acorns,
but from which sort of Oak I am not certain.  They cure Burns beyond Credit.
I have seen a Man burnt in such a manner, (when drunk) by falling into a Fire,
that I did not think he could recover; yet they cur'd him in ten Days,
so that he went about.  I knew another blown up with Powder,
that was cured to Admiration.  {No ulcerated Wounds.}  I never saw an Indian
have an Ulcer, or foul Wound in my Life; neither is there any such thing
to be found amongst them.  {Pox to cure.}  They cure the Pox, by a Berry
that salivates, as Mercury does; yet they use Sweating and Decoctions
very much with it; as they do, almost on every Occasion;
and when they are thoroughly heated, they leap into the River.
The Pox is frequent in some of these Nations; amongst which
I knew one Woman die of it; and they could not, or would not, cure her.
Before she died, she was worn away to a Skeleton, yet walk'd up and down
to the last.  We had a Planter in Carolina, who had got an Ulcer in his Leg,
which had troubled him a great many Years; at last, he apply'd himself
to one of these Indian Conjurers, who was a Pampticough Indian,
and was not to give the Value of fifteen Shillings for the Cure.
{Indian cure an Ulcer.}  Now, I am not positive, whether he wash'd the Ulcer
with any thing, before he used what I am now going to speak of,
which was nothing but the rotten doated Grains of Indian Corn,
beaten to Powder, and the soft Down growing on a Turkey's Rump.
This dry'd the Ulcer up immediately, and no other Fontanel was made
to discharge the Matter, he remaining a healthful Man,
till the time he had the Misfortune to be drown'd, which was many Years after.
{Cure in Maryland.}  Another Instance (not of my own Knowledge,
but I had it confirm'd by several Dwellers in Maryland,
where it was done) was, of an honest Planter that had been possess'd
with a strange Lingring Distemper, not usual amongst them,
under which he emaciated, and grew every Month worse than another,
it having held him several Years, in which time he had made Tryal
of several Doctors, as they call them, which, I suppose, were Ship-Surgeons.
In the beginning of this Distemper, the Patient was very well to pass,
and was possess'd of several Slaves, which the Doctors purged all away,
and the poor Man was so far from mending, that he grew worse and worse
every day.  But it happen'd, that, one day, as his Wife and he
were commiserating his miserable Condition, and that he could not expect
to recover, but look'd for Death very speedily, and condoling the Misery
he should leave his Wife and Family in, since all his Negro's were gone.
At that time, I say, it happen'd, that an Indian was in the same Room,
who had frequented the House for many Years, and so was become
as one of the Family, and would sometimes be at this Planter's House,
and at other times amongst the Indians.

This Savage, hearing what they talk'd of, and having a great Love
for the Sick Man, made this Reply to what he had heard.
`Brother, you have been a long time Sick; and, I know, you have
given away your Slaves to your English Doctors:  What made you do so,
and now become poor?  They do not know how to cure you;
for it is an Indian Distemper, which your People know not the Nature of.
If it had been an English Disease, probably they could have cured you;
and had you come to me at first, I would have cured you for a small matter,
without taking away your Servants that made Corn for you and your Family
to eat; and yet, if you will give me a Blanket to keep me warm,
and some Powder and Shot to kill Deer withal, I will do my best
to make you well still.'  The Man was low in Courage and Pocket too,
and made the Indian this Reply.  `Jack, my Distemper is past Cure,
and if our English Doctors cannot cure it, I am sure, the Indians cannot.'
But his Wife accosted her Husband in very mild terms, and told him,
he did not know, but God might be pleased to give a Blessing
to that Indian's Undertaking more than he had done to the English;
and farther added; `if you die, I cannot be much more miserable,
by giving this small matter to the Indian; so I pray you, my Dear,
take my Advice, and try him;' to which, by her Persuasions, he consented.
After the Bargain was concluded, the Indian went into the Woods,
and brought in both Herbs and Roots, of which he made a Decoction,
and gave it the Man to drink, and bad him go to bed, saying,
it should not be long, before he came again, which the Patient perform'd
as he had ordered; and the Potion he had administred made him sweat
after the most violent manner that could be, whereby he smell'd
very offensively both to himself, and they that were about him;
but in the Evening, towards Night, Jack came, with a great Rattle-Snake
in his Hand alive, which frightned the People almost out of their Senses;
{Cure by a Snake.} and he told his Patient, that he must take that
to Bed to him; at which the Man was in a great Consternation,
and told the Indian, he was resolv'd, to let no Snake come into his Bed,
for he might as well die of the Distemper he had, as be kill'd
with the Bite of that Serpent.  To which the Indian reply'd,
he could not bite him now, nor do him any Harm; for he had taken out
his Poison-teeth, and shew'd him, that they were gone.  At last,
with much Persuasion, he admitted the Snake's Company, which the Indian
put about his Middle, and order'd nobody to take him away upon any account,
which was strictly observ'd, although the Snake girded him as hard
for a great while, as if he had been drawn in by a Belt, which one pull'd at,
with all his strength.  At last, the Snake's Twitches grew weaker and weaker,
till, by degrees, he felt him not; and opening the Bed, he was found dead,
and the Man thought himself better.  The Indian came in the Morning,
and seeing the Snake dead, told the Man, that his Distemper was dead
along with that Snake, which prov'd so as he said; for the Man
speedily recover'd his Health, and became perfectly well.

{Spleen how cure.}
They cure the Spleen (which they are much addicted to) by burning with a Reed.
They lay the Patient on his Back, so put a hollow Cane into the Fire,
where they burn the End thereof, till it is very hot, and on Fire at the end.
Then they lay a Piece of thin Leather on the Patient's Belly,
between the Pit of the Stomach and the Navel, so press the hot Reed
on the Leather, which burns the Patient so that you may ever after see
the Impression of the Reed where it was laid on, which Mark never goes off
so long as he lives.  This is used for the Belly-Ach sometimes.

{Colouring of the Hair.}  They can colour their Hair black,
though sometimes it is reddish, which they do with the Seed of a Flower
that grows commonly in their Plantations.  I believe this would change
the reddest Hair into perfect black.  {Not many Tears, Rozins.}
They make use of no Minerals in their Physick, and not much of Animals;
but chiefly rely on Vegetables.  They have several Remedies for the Tooth-ach,
which often drive away the Pain; but if they fail, they have Recourse
to punching out the Tooth, with a small Cane set against the same,
on a Bit of Leather.  Then they strike the Reed, and so drive out the Tooth;
and howsoever it may seem to the Europeans, I prefer it before
the common way of drawing Teeth by those Instruments than endanger the Jaw,
and a Flux of Blood often follows, which this Method of a Punch
never is attended withal; neither is it half the Pain.
The Spontaneous Plants of America the Savages are well acquainted withal;
and a Flux of Blood never follows any of their Operations.
They are wholly Strangers to Amputation, and for what natural Issues of Blood
happen immoderately, they are not to seek for a certain and speedy Cure.
Tears, Rozins, and Gums, I have not discover'd that they make much use of;
And as for Purging and Emeticks, so much in fashion with us,
they never apply themselves to, {Yaupon.} unless in drinking
vast Quantities of their Yaupon or Tea, and vomiting it up again,
as clear as they drink it.  This is a Custom amongst all those
that can procure that Plant, in which manner they take it every other Morning,
or oftner; by which Method they keep their Stomachs clean,
without pricking the Coats, and straining Nature, as every Purge
is an Enemy to.  Besides, the great Diuretick Quality of their Tea
carries off a great deal, that perhaps might prejudice their Health,
by Agues, and Fevers, which all watry Countries are addicted to;
for which reason, I believe, it is, that the Indians are not so much
addicted to that Distemper, as we are, they preventing its seizing upon them,
by this Plant alone.  Moreover, I have remark'd, that it is only those Places
bordering on the Ocean and great Rivers, that this Distemper is frequent in,
and only on and near the same Places this Evergreen is to be found;
and none up towards the Mountains, where these Agues seldom or never appear;
Nature having provided suitable Remedies, in all Countries,
proper for the Maladies that are common thereto.  The Savages of Carolina
have this Tea in Veneration, above all the Plants they are acquainted withal,
and tell you, the Discovery thereof was by an infirm Indian,
that labour'd under the Burden of many rugged Distempers,
and could not be cured by all their Doctors; so, one day,
he fell asleep, and dreamt, that if he took a Decoction of the Tree
that grew at his Head, he would certainly be cured; upon which he awoke,
and saw the Yaupon or Cassena-Tree, which was not there
when he fell asleep.  He follow'd the Direction of his Dream,
and became perfectly well in a short time.  Now, I suppose,
no Man has so little Sense as to believe this Fable; yet it lets us see
what they intend thereby, and that it has, doubtless, work'd Feats enough,
to gain it such an Esteem amongst these Savages, who are too well versed
in Vegetables, to be brought to a continual use of any one of them,
upon a meer Conceit or Fancy, without some apparent Benefit
they found thereby; especially, when we are sensible,
they drink the Juices of Plants, to free Nature of her Burdens,
and not out of Foppery and Fashion, as other Nations are oftentimes
found to do.  Amongst all the Discoveries of America,
by the Missionaries of the French and Spaniards, I wonder none of them
was so kind to the World, as to have kept a Catalogue of the Distempers
they found the Savages capable of curing, and their Method of Cure;
which might have been of some Advantage to our Materia Medica at home,
when deliver'd by Men of Learning, and other Qualifications,
as most of them are.  Authors generally tell us, that the Savages
are well enough acquainted with those Plants which their Climate affords,
and that some of them effect great Cures, but by what Means,
and in what Form, we are left in the dark.  {Sassafras.}

The Bark of the Root of the Sassafras-Tree, I have observ'd,
is much used by them.  They generally torrefy it in the Embers,
so strip off the Bark from the Root, beating it to a Consistence
fit to spread, so lay it on the griev'd Part; which both cleanses
a fowl Ulcer; and after Scarrification, being apply'd to a Contusion,
or Swelling, draws forth the Pain, and reduces the Part to its pristine
State of Health, as I have often seen effected.  Fats and Unguents
never appear in their Chirurgery, when the Skin is once broke.
The Fats of Animals are used by them, to render their Limbs pliable,
and when wearied, to relieve the Joints, and this not often,
because they approve of the Sweating-House (in such cases) above all things.
{Make Bread, how.  Alkali Salts.}  The Salts they mix
with their Bread and Soupe, to give them a Relish, are Alkalis,
(viz.) Ashes, and calcined Bones of Deer, and other Animals.
{No Sallads, Pepper, or Mustard.}  Sallads, they never eat any;
as for Pepper and Mustard, they reckon us little better than Madmen,
to make use of it amongst our Victuals.  They are never troubled
with the Scurvy, Dropsy, nor Stone.  The Phthisick, Asthma, and Diabetes,
they are wholly Strangers to; neither do I remember I ever saw
one Paralytick amongst them.  The Gout, I cannot be certain
whether they know what it is, or not.  Indeed, I never saw
any Nodes or Swellings, which attend the Gout in Europe;
{Rhumatick Pains.} yet they have a sort of Rhumatism or Burning of the Limbs,
which tortures them grievously, at which time their Legs are so hot,
that they employ the young People continually to pour Water down them.
I never saw but one or two thus afflicted.  The Struma is not uncommon
amongst these Savages, and another Distemper, which is, in some respects,
like the Pox, but is attended with no Gonorrhoea.  This not seldom
bereaves them of their Nose.  I have seen three or four of them
render'd most miserable Spectacles by this Distemper.
Yet, when they have been so negligent, as to let it run on so far
without curbing of it; at last, they make shift to patch themselves up,
and live for many years after; and such Men commonly turn Doctors.
I have known two or three of these no-nose Doctors in great Esteem
amongst these Savages.  The Juice of the Tulip-Tree is used
as a proper Remedy for this Distemper.  What Knowledge they have in Anatomy,
I cannot tell, neither did I ever see them employ themselves therein,
unless, as I told you before, when they make the Skeletons
of their Kings and great Mens Bones.

The Indians are very careless and negligent of their Health;
as, by Drunkenness, Wading in the Water, irregular Diet and Lodging,
and a thousand other Disorders, (that would kill an European)
which they daily use.  They boil and roast their Meat extraordinary much,
and eat abundance of Broth, {Naked Indians.} except the Savages
whom we call the naked Indians, who never eat any Soupe.
They travel from the Banks of the Messiasippi, to war against
the Sinnagars or Iroquois, and are (if equal Numbers)
commonly too hard for them.  They will lie and sleep in the Woods
without Fire, being inur'd thereto.  They are the hardiest of all Indians,
and run so fast, that they are never taken, neither do any Indians
outrun them, if they are pursu'd.  Their Savage Enemies say,
their Nimbleness and Wind proceeds from their never eating any Broth.
{Small-Pox.}  The Small-Pox has been fatal to them; they do not often escape,
when they are seiz'd with that Distemper, which is a contrary Fever
to what they ever knew.  Most certain, it had never visited America,
before the Discovery thereof by the Christians.  Their running into the Water,
in the Extremity of this Disease, strikes it in, and kills all that use it.
Now they are become a little wiser; but formerly it destroy'd whole Towns,
without leaving one Indian alive in the Village.  The Plague was never known
amongst them, that I could learn by what Enquiry I have made:
These Savages use Scarrification almost in all Distempers.

Their chief Instruments for that Operation is the Teeth of Rattle-Snakes,
which they poison withal.  They take them out of the Snake's Head,
and suck out the Poison with their Mouths, (and so keep them for use)
and spit out the Venom, which is green, and are never damag'd thereby.
The Small-Pox and Rum have made such a Destruction amongst them,
that, on good grounds, I do believe, there is not the sixth Savage living
within two hundred Miles of all our Settlements, as there were
fifty Years ago.  These poor Creatures have so many Enemies to destroy them,
that it's a wonder one of them is left alive near us.  The Small-pox
I have acquainted you withal above, and so I have of Rum, and shall only add,
that they have got a way to carry it back to the Westward Indians,
who never knew what it was, till within very few Years.  Now they have it
brought them by the Tuskeruro's, and other Neighbour-Indians,
but the Tuskeruro's chiefly, who carry it in Rundlets several hundred Miles,
amongst other Indians.  Sometimes they cannot forbear breaking their Cargo,
but sit down in the Woods, and drink it all up, and then hollow and shout
like so many Bedlamites.  I accidentally once met with one of these
drunken Crews, and was amaz'd to see a Parcel of drunken Savages
so far from any Englishman's House; but the Indians I had in Company
inform'd me, that they were Merchants, and had drunk all their Stock,
as is very common for them to do.  But when they happen to carry it safe,
(which is seldom, without drinking some part of it, and filling it up
with Water) and come to an Indian Town, those that buy Rum of them
have so many Mouthfuls for a Buck-Skin, they never using any other Measure;
and for this purpose, the Buyer always makes Choice of his Man,
which is one that has the greatest Mouth, whom he brings to the Market
with a Bowl to put it in.  The Seller looks narrowly to the Man's Mouth
that measures it, and if he happens to swallow any down,
either through Wilfulness or otherwise, the Merchant or some of his Party,
does not scruple to knock the Fellow down, exclaiming against him
for false Measure.  Thereupon, the Buyer finds another Mouthpiece
to measure the Rum by; so that this Trading is very agreeable
to the Spectators, to see such a deal of Quarrelling and Controversy,
as often happens, about it, and is very diverting.

{Poisoning of Taylor.}
Another Destroyer of them, is, the Art they have, and often practise,
of poisoning one another; which is done by a large, white, spungy Root,
that grows in the Fresh-Marshes, which is one of their Poisons;
not but that they have many other Drugs, which they poison one another withal.

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