A New Voyage to Carolina

John Lawson, first published 1709

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We will next treat of the Beasts, which you shall have an Account of,
as they have been discover'd.

          The Beasts of Carolina are the
    Buffelo, or wild Beef.
    Wild Cat.
    Rabbet, two sorts.
    Squirrel, four sorts.
    Lion, and Jackall on the Lake.
    Rats, two sorts.
    Mice, two sorts.
    Weasel, Dormouse.

The Buffelo is a wild Beast of America, which has a Bunch on his Back,
as the Cattle of St. Laurence are said to have.  He seldom appears
amongst the English Inhabitants, his chief Haunt being
in the Land of Messiasippi, which is, for the most part, a plain Country;
yet I have known some kill'd on the Hilly Part of Cape-Fair-River,
they passing the Ledges of vast Mountains from the said Messiasippi,
before they can come near us.  {Two killed one year in Virginia
at Appamaticks.}  I have eaten of their Meat, but do not think it so good
as our Beef; yet the younger Calves are cry'd up for excellent Food,
as very likely they may be.  It is conjectured, that these Buffelos,
mixt in Breed with our tame Cattle, would much better the Breed
for Largeness and Milk, which seems very probable.  Of the wild Bull's Skin,
Buff is made.  The Indians cut the Skins into Quarters
for the Ease of their Transportation, and make Beds to lie on.
They spin the Hair into Garters, Girdles, Sashes, and the like,
it being long and curled, and often of a chesnut or red Colour.
These Monsters are found to weigh (as I am informed by a Traveller of Credit)
from 1600 to 2400 Weight.

The Bears here are very common, though not so large as in Greenland,
and the more Northern Countries of Russia.  The Flesh of this Beast
is very good, and nourishing, and not inferiour to the best Pork in Taste.
It stands betwixt Beef and Pork, and the young Cubs are a Dish
for the greatest Epicure living.  I prefer their Flesh before any Beef,
Veal, Pork, or Mutton; and they look as well as they eat,
their fat being as white as Snow, and the sweetest of any Creature's
in the World.  If a Man drink a Quart thereof melted,
it never will rise in his Stomach.  We prefer it above all things,
to fry Fish and other things in.  Those that are Strangers to it,
may judge otherwise; But I who have eaten a great deal of Bears Flesh
in my Life-time (since my being an Inhabitant in America)
do think it equalizes, if not excels, any Meat I ever eat in Europe.
The Bacon made thereof is extraordinary Meat; but it must be well saved,
otherwise it will rust.  This Creature feeds upon all sorts of wild Fruits.
When Herrings run, which is in March, the Flesh of such of those Bears
as eat thereof, is nought, all that Season, and eats filthily.
Neither is it good, when he feeds on Gum-berries, as I intimated before.
They are great Devourers of Acorns, and oftentimes meet the Swine
in the Woods, which they kill and eat, especially when they are hungry,
and can find no other Food.  Now and then they get into
the Fields of Indian Corn, or Maiz, where they make a sad Havock,
spoiling ten times as much as they eat.  The Potatos of this Country
are so agreeable to them, that they never fail to sweep 'em all clean,
if they chance to come in their way.  They are seemingly
a very clumsy Creature, yet are very nimble in running up Trees,
and traversing every Limb thereof.  When they come down,
they run Tail foremost.  At catching of Herrings, they are
most expert Fishers.  They sit by the Creek-sides, (which are very narrow)
where the Fish run in; and there they take them up, as fast as it's possible
they can dip their Paws into the Water.  There is one thing more
to be consider'd of this Creature, which is, that no Man,
either Christian or Indian, has ever kill'd a She-bear with Young.

It is supposed, that the She-Bears, after Conception, hide themselves
in some secret and undiscoverable Place, till they bring forth their Young,
which, in all Probability, cannot be long; otherwise, the Indians,
who hunt the Woods like Dogs, would, at some time or other,
have found them out.  Bear-Hunting is a great Sport in America,
both with the English and Indians.  Some Years ago, there were kill'd
five hundred Bears, in two Counties of Virginia, in one Winter;
and but two She-Bears amongst them all, which were not with Young,
as I told you of the rest.  The English have a breed of Dogs
fit for this sport, about the size of Farmers Curs, and, by Practice,
come to know the Scent of a Bear, which as soon as they have found,
they run him, by the Nose, till they come up with him,
and then bark and snap at him, till he trees, when the Huntsman shoots him
out of the Trees, there being, for the most part, two or three with Guns,
lest the first should miss, or not quite kill him.  Though they are not
naturally voracious, yet they are very fierce when wounded.
The Dogs often bring him to a Bay, when wounded, and then the Huntsmen
make other Shots, perhaps with the Pistols that are stuck in their Girdles.
If a Dog is apt to fasten, and run into a Bear, he is not good,
for the best Dog in Europe is nothing in their Paws; but if ever
they get him in their Clutches, they blow his Skin from his Flesh,
like a Bladder, and often kill him; or if he recovers it, he is never good
for any thing after.  As the Paws of this Creature, are held for the best bit
about him, so is the Head esteem'd the worst, and always thrown away,
for what reason I know not.  I believe, none ever made Trial thereof,
to know how it eats.  The Oil of the Bear is very Sovereign for Strains,
Aches, and old Pains.  The fine Fur at the bottom of the Belly, is used
for making Hats, in some places.  The Fur itself is fit for several Uses;
as for making Muffs, facing Caps, &c. but the black Cub-skin is preferable
to all sorts of that kind, for Muffs.  Its Grain is like Hog-Skin.

The Panther is of the Cat's kind; about the height of a very large Greyhound
of a reddish Colour, the same as a Lion.  He climbs Trees
with the greatest Agility imaginable, is very strong-limb'd,
catching a piece of Meat from any Creature he strikes at.
His Tail is exceeding long; his Eyes look very fierce and lively,
are large, and of a grayish Colour; his Prey is, Swines-flesh, Deer,
or any thing he can take; no Creature is so nice and clean, as this,
in his Food.  When he has got his Prey, he fills his Belly with the Slaughter,
and carefully lays up the Remainder, covering it very neatly with Leaves,
which if any thing touches, he never eats any more of it.
He purrs as Cats do; if taken when Young, is never to be reclaim'd
from his wild Nature.  He hollows like a Man in the Woods, when kill'd,
which is by making him take a Tree, as the least Cur will presently do;
then the Huntsmen shoot him; if they do not kill him outright,
he is a dangerous Enemy, when wounded, especially to the Dogs
that approach him.  This Beast is the greatest Enemy to the Planter,
of any Vermine in Carolina.  His Flesh looks as well
as any Shambles-Meat whatsoever; a great many People eat him, as choice Food;
but I never tasted of a Panther, so cannot commend the Meat,
by my own Experience.  His Skin is a warm Covering for the Indians
in Winter, though not esteem'd amongst the choice Furs.  This Skin dress'd,
makes fine Womens Shooes, or Mens Gloves.

The Mountain-Cat, so call'd, because he lives in the Mountainous Parts
of America.  He is a Beast of Prey, as the Panther is, and nearest to him
in Bigness and Nature.

{Wild Cat.}
This Cat is quite different from those in Europe; being more
nimble and fierce, and larger; his Tail does not exceed four Inches.
He makes a very odd sort of Cry in the Woods, in the Night.
He is spotted as the Leopard is, tho' some of them are not,
(which may happen, when their Furs are out of Season)
he climbs a Tree very dexterously, and preys as the Panther does.
He is a great Destroyer of young Swine.  I knew an Island,
which was possess'd by these Vermine, unknown to the Planter,
who put thereon a considerable Stock of Swine; but never took one back;
for the wild Cats destroy'd them all.  He takes most of his Prey by Surprize,
getting up the Trees, which they pass by or under, and thence leaping
directly upon them.  Thus he takes Deer (which he cannot catch by running)
and fastens his Teeth into their Shoulders and sucks them.
They run with him, till they fall down for want of strength,
and become a Prey to the Enemy.  Hares, Birds, and all he meets,
that he can conquer, he destroys.  The Fur is approv'd to wear
as a Stomacher, for weak and cold Stomachs.  They are likewise used
to line Muffs, and Coats withal, in cold Climates.

The Wolf of Carolina, is the Dog of the Woods.  The Indians had
no other Curs, before the Christians came amongst them.
They are made domestick.  When wild, they are neither so large, nor fierce,
as the European Wolf.  They are not Man-slayers; neither is any Creature
in Carolina, unless wounded.  They go in great Droves in the Night,
to hunt Deer, which they do as well as the best Pack of Hounds.
Nay, one of these will hunt down a Deer.  They are often so poor,
that they can hardly run.  When they catch no Prey, they go to a Swamp,
and fill their Belly full of Mud; if afterwards they chance
to get any thing of Flesh, they will disgorge the Mud, and eat the other.
When they hunt in the Night, that there is a great many together,
they make the most hideous and frightful Noise, that ever was heard.
The Fur makes good Muffs.  The Skin dress'd to a Parchment
makes the best Drum-Heads, and if tann'd makes the best sort of Shooes
for the Summer-Countries.

Tygers are never met withal in the Settlement; but are more to the Westward,
and are not numerous on this Side the Chain of Mountains.  I once saw one,
that was larger that a Panther, and seem'd to be a very bold Creature.
The Indians that hunt in those Quarters, say, they are seldom met withal.
It seems to differ from the Tyger of Asia and Africa.

Polcats or Skunks in America, are different from those in Europe.
They are thicker, and of a great many Colours; not all alike,
but each differing from another in the particular Colour.
They smell like a Fox, but ten times stronger.  When a Dog encounters them,
they piss upon him, and he will not be sweet again in a Fortnight or more.
The Indians love to eat their Flesh, which has no manner of ill Smell,
when the Bladder is out.  I know no use their Furs are put to.
They are easily brought up tame.

There have been seen some Otters from the Westward of Carolina,
which were of a white Colour, a little inclining to a yellow.
They live on the same Prey here, as in Europe, and are the same
in all other Respects; so I shall insist no farther on that Creature.
Their Furs, if black, are valuable.

Bevers are very numerous in Carolina, their being abundance of their Dams
in all Parts of the Country, where I have travel'd.  They are the most
industrious and greatest Artificers (in building their Dams and Houses)
of any four-footed Creatures in the World.  Their Food is chiefly
the Barks of Trees and Shrubs, viz. Sassafras, Ash, Sweet-Gum,
and several others.  If you take them young, they become
very tame and domestick, but are very mischievous in spoiling Orchards,
by breaking the Trees, and blocking up your Doors in the Night,
with the Sticks and Wood they bring thither.  If they eat any thing
that is salt, it kills them.  Their Flesh is a sweet Food;
especially, their Tail, which is held very dainty.  Their Fore-Feet are open,
like a Dog's; their Hind-Feet webb'd like a Water-Fowl's.
The Skins are good Furs for several Uses, which every one knows.
The Leather is very thick; I have known Shooes made thereof in Carolina,
which lasted well.  It makes the best Hedgers Mittens that can be used.

{Musk Rat.}
Musk Rats frequent fresh Streams and no other; as the Bever does.
He has a Cod of Musk, which is valuable, as is likewise his Fur.

The Possum is found no where but in America.  He is the Wonder
of all the Land Animals, being the size of a Badger, and near that Colour.
The Male's Pizzle is placed retrograde; and in time of Coition,
they differ from all other Animals, turning Tail to Tail,
as Dog and Bitch when ty'd.  The Female, doubtless, breeds her Young
at her Teats; for I have seen them stick fast thereto, when they have been
no bigger than a small Rasberry, and seemingly inanimate.
She has a Paunch, or false Belly, wherein she carries her Young,
after they are from those Teats, till they can shift for themselves.
Their Food is Roots, Poultry, or wild Fruits.  They have no Hair
on their Tails, but a sort of a Scale, or hard Crust, as the Bevers have.
If a Cat has nine Lives, this Creature surely has nineteen;
for if you break every Bone in their Skin, and mash their Skull,
leaving them for Dead, you may come an hour after, and they will be
gone quite away, or perhaps you meet them creeping away.
They are a very stupid Creature, utterly neglecting their Safety.
They are most like Rats of any thing.  I have, for Necessity
in the Wilderness, eaten of them.  Their Flesh is very white,
and well tasted; but their ugly Tails put me out of Conceit with that Fare.
They climb Trees, as the Raccoons do.  Their Fur is not esteem'd nor used,
save that the Indians spin it into Girdles and Garters.

The Raccoon is of a dark-gray Colour; if taken young, is easily made tame,
but is the drunkenest Creature living, if he can get any Liquor
that is sweet and strong.  They are rather more unlucky than a Monkey.
When wild, they are very subtle in catching their Prey.
Those that live in the Salt-Water, feed much on Oysters which they love.
They watch the Oyster when it opens, and nimbly put in their Paw,
and pluck out the Fish.  Sometimes the Oyster shuts, and holds fast their Paw
till the Tide comes in, that they are drown'd, tho' they swim very well.
The way that this Animal catches Crabs, which he greatly admires,
and which are plenty in Carolina, is worthy of Remark.
When he intends to make a Prey of these Fish, he goes to a Marsh,
where standing on the Land, he lets his Tail hang in the Water.
This the Crab takes for a Bait, and fastens his Claws therein,
which as soon as the Raccoon perceives, he, of a sudden, springs forward,
a considerable way, on the Land, and brings the Crab along with him.
As soon as the Fish finds himself out of his Element, he presently
lets go his hold; and then the Raccoon encounters him, by getting him
cross-wise in his Mouth, and devours him.  There is a sort of small Land-Crab,
which we call a Fiddler, that runs into a Hole when any thing pursues him.
This Crab the Raccoon takes by putting his Fore-Foot in the Hole,
and pulling him out.  With a tame Raccoon, this Sport is very diverting.
The Chief of his other Food is all sorts of wild Fruits, green Corn,
and such as the Bear delights in.  This and the Possum
are much of a Bigness.  The Fur makes good Hats and Linings.
The Skin dress'd makes fine Womens Shooes.

The Minx is an Animal much like the English Fillimart or Polcat.
He is long, slender, and every way shap'd like him.  His Haunts are chiefly
in the Marshes, by the Sea-side and Salt-Waters, where he lives on Fish, Fowl,
Mice, and Insects.  They are bold Thieves, and will steal any thing from you
in the Night, when asleep, as I can tell by Experience; for one Winter,
by Misfortune, I ran my Vessel a-ground, and went often to the Banks,
to kill wild Fowl, which we did a great many.  One Night, we had a mind
to sleep on the Banks (the Weather being fair) and wrapt up the Geese
which we had kill'd, and not eaten, very carefully, in the Sail of a Canoe,
and folded it several Doubles, and for their better Security,
laid 'em all Night under my Head.  In the Morning when I wak'd,
a Minx had eaten thro' every Fold of the Canoe's Sail,
and thro' one of the Geese, most part of which was gone.
These are likewise found high up in the Rivers, in whose sides they live;
which is known by the abundance of Fresh-Water Muscle-Shells
(such as you have in England) that lie at the Mouth of their Holes.
This is an Enemy to the Tortois, whose Holes in the Sand,
where they hide their Eggs, the Minx finds out, and scratches up and eats.
The Raccoons and Crows do the same.  The Minx may be made domestick,
and were it not for his paying a Visit now and then to the Poultry,
they are the greatest Destroyers of Rats and Mice, that are in the World.
Their Skins, if good of that kind, are valuable, provided they are kill'd
in Season.

The Water-Rat is found here the same as in England.  The Water-Snakes
are often found to have of these Rats in their Bellies.

That which the People of Carolina call a Hare, is nothing but a Hedge-Coney.
They never borough in the Ground, but much frequent Marshes and Meadow-Land.
They hide their Young in some Place secure from the Discovery of the Buck,
as the European Rabbets do, and are of the same Colour;
but if you start one of them, and pursue her, she takes into a hollow Tree,
and there runs up as far as she can, in which Case the Hunter makes a Fire,
and smoaks the Tree, which brings her down, and smothers her.
At one time of the Year, great Bots or Maggots breed betwixt
the Skin and the Flesh of these Creatures.  They eat just as
the English ones do; but I never saw one of them fat.  We fire the Marshes,
and then kill abundance.

{Rabbet English.}
The English, or European Coneys are here found, tho' but in one place
that I ever knew of, which was in Trent-River, where they borough'd
among the Rocks.  I cannot believe, these are Natives of the Country,
any otherwise than that they might come from aboard some Wreck;
the Sea not being far off.  I was told of several that were upon
Bodies Island by Ronoak, which came from that Ship of Bodies;
but I never saw any.  However the Banks are no proper Abode of Safety,
because of the many Minxes in those Quarters.  I carried over
some of the tame sort from England to South-Carolina,
which bred three times going over, we having a long Passage.
I turn'd them loose in a Plantation, and the young ones,
and some of the old ones bred great Maggots in their Testicles.  At last,
the great Gust in September, 1700, brought a great deal of Rain,
and drown'd them all in their Holes.  I intend to make a second Tryal of them
in North Carolina, and doubt not but to secure them.

The Elk is a Monster of the Venison sort.  His Skin is used
almost in the same Nature as the Buffelo's.  Some take him
for the red Deer of America; but he is not:  For, if brought and kept
in Company with one of that sort, of the contrary Sex, he will never couple.
His Flesh is not so sweet as the lesser Deers.  His Horns exceed (in Weight)
all Creatures which the new World affords.  They will often resort and feed
with the Buffelo, delighting in the same Range as they do.

The Stags of Carolina are lodg'd in the Mountains.  They are not so large
as in Europe, but much larger than any Fallow-Deer.  They are always fat,
I believe, with some delicate Herbage that grows on the Hills;
for we find all Creatures that graze much fatter and better Meat on the Hills,
than those in the Valleys:  I mean towards and near the Sea.
Some Deer on these Mountains afford the occidental Bezoar,
not coming from a Goat, as some report.  What sort of Beast affords
the oriental Bezoar, I know not.  The Tallow of the Harts
make incomparable Candles.  Their Horns and Hides are of the same Value,
as others of their kind.

Fallow-Deer in Carolina, are taller and longer-legg'd, than in Europe;
but neither run so fast, nor are so well haunch'd.  Their Singles are
much longer, and their Horns stand forward, as the others incline backward;
neither do they beam, or bear their Antlers, as the English Deer do.
Towards the Salts, they are not generally so fat and good Meat,
as on the Hills.  I have known some kill'd on the Salts in January,
that have had abundance of Bots in their Throat, which keep them very poor.
As the Summer approaches, these Bots come out, and turn into
the finest Butterfly imaginable, being very large, and having black, white,
and yellow Stripes.  Deer-Skins are one of the best Commodities
Carolina affords, to ship off for England, provided they be large.

{Fox Squirrel.}
Of Squirrels we have four Sorts.  The first is the Fox-Squirrel,
so call'd, because of his large Size, which is the Bigness of a Rabbet
of two or three Months old.  His Colour is commonly gray;
yet I have seen several pied ones, and some reddish, and black;
his chiefest Haunts are in the Piny Land, where the Almond-Pine grows.
There he provides his Winter-Store; they being a Nut
that never fails of bearing.  He may be made tame, and is very good Meat,
when killed.

{Small gray Squirrel.}
The next sort of Squirrel is much of the Nature of the English,
only differing in Colour.  Their Food is Nuts (of all sorts
the Country affords) and Acorns.  They eat well; and, like the Bear,
are never found with young.

This Squirrel is gray, as well as the others.  He is the least of the Three.
His Food is much the same with the small gray Squirrels.  He has not Wings,
as Birds or Bats have, there being a fine thin Skin cover'd with Hair,
as the rest of the parts are.  This is from the Fore-Feet to the Hinder-Feet,
which is extended and holds so much Air, as buoys him up,
from one Tree to another, that are greater distances asunder,
than other Squirrels can reach by jumping or springing.  He is made very tame,
is an Enemy to a Cornfield, (as all Squirrels are) and eats only
the germinating Eye of that Grain, which is very sweet.

{Ground Squirrel.}
Ground Squirrels are so call'd, because they never delight
in running up Trees, and leaping from Tree to Tree.  They are
the smallest of all Squirrels.  Their Tail is neither so long not bushy;
but flattish.  They are of a reddish Colour, and striped down each Side
with black Rows, which make them very beautiful.  They may be kept tame,
in a little Box with Cotton.  They and the Flying-Squirrels seldom stir out
in Cold Weather, being tender Animals.

The Fox of Carolina is gray, but smells not as the Foxes
in Great-Britain, and elsewhere.  They have reddish Hair about their Ears,
and are generally very fat; yet I never saw any one eat them.
When hunted, they make a sorry Chace, because they run up Trees, when pursued.
They are never to be made familiar and tame, as the Raccoon is.
Their Furs, if in Season, are used for Muffs and other Ornaments.
They live chiefly on Birds and Fowls, and such small Prey.

{Supposed Lion and Jackall.}
I have been inform'd by the Indians, that on a Lake of Water
towards the Head of Neus River, there haunts a Creature,
which frightens them all from Hunting thereabouts.  They say,
he is the Colour of a Panther, but cannot run up Trees;
and that there abides with him a Creature like an Englishman's Dog,
which runs faster than he can, and gets his Prey for him.  They add,
that there is no other of that Kind that ever they met withal;
and that they have no other way to avoid him, but by running up a Tree.
The Certainty of this I cannot affirm by my own Knowledge,
yet they all agree in this Story.  As for Lions, I never saw any in America;
neither can I imagine, how they should come there.

Of Rats we have two sorts; the House-Rat, as in Europe; and the Marsh-Rat,
which differs very much from the other, being more hairy,
and has several other Distinctions, too long here to name.

Mice are the same here, as those in England, that belong to the House.
There is one sort that poisons a Cat, as soon as she eats of them,
which has sometimes happen'd.  These Mice resort not to Houses.

The Dormouse is the same as in England; and so is the Weasel,
which is very scarce.

The Bat or Rearmouse, the same as in England.  The Indian Children
are much addicted to eat Dirt, and so are some of the Christians.
But roast a Bat on a Skewer, then pull the Skin off, and make the Child
that eats Dirt, eat the roasted Rearmouse; and he will never eat Dirt again.
This is held as an infallible Remedy.  I have put this amongst the Beasts,
as partaking of both Natures; of the Bird, and Mouse-Kind.

Having mention'd all the sorts of terrestrial or Land-Animals,
which Carolina affords and are yet known to us, except the Tame
and Domestick Creatures (of which I shall give an Account hereafter,
when I come to treat of the Ways and Manners of Agriculture in that Province)
I shall now proceed to the known Insects of that Place.
Not that I pretend to give an ample Account of the whole Tribe,
which is too numerous, and contains too great a Diversity of Species,
many not yet discovered, and others that have slipt my Memory at present;
But those which I can remember, I here present my Readers withal.

          Insects of Carolina.
    Ground Rattle-Snakes.
    Water-Snakes, four sorts.
    Swamp Snakes three sorts.
    Red-bellied Land-Snakes.
    Red-back'd Snake.
    Black Truncheon Snake.
    Green Lizard.
    Frogs, many sorts.
    Long black Snake.
    Green Snake.
    Corn Snake.
    Vipers black and gray.
    Terebin Land and Water.
    Egg, or Chicken-Snake.
    Eel-Snake, or great Loach.
    Brown Lizard.
    Rotten-wood Worm, &c.

{Strange Genitors.}
The Allegator is the same, as the Crocodile, and differs only in Name.
They frequent the sides of Rivers, in the Banks of which they make
their Dwellings a great way under Ground; the Hole or Mouth of their Dens
lying commonly two Foot under Water, after which it rises
till it be considerably above the Surface thereof.  Here it is,
that this amphibious Monster dwells all the Winter, sleeping away his time
till the Spring appears, when he comes from his Cave, and daily swims
up and down the Streams.  He always breeds in some fresh Stream,
or clear Fountain of Water, yet seeks his Prey in the broad Salt Waters,
that are brackish, not on the Sea-side, where I never met with any.
He never devours Men in Carolina, but uses all ways to avoid them,
yet he kills Swine and Dogs, the former as they come to feed in the Marshes,
the others as they swim over the Creeks and Waters.  They are very mischievous
to the Wares made for taking Fish, into which they come to prey
on the Fish that are caught in the Ware, from whence they cannot
readily extricate themselves, and so break the Ware in Pieces,
being a very strong Creature.  This Animal, in these Parts,
sometimes exceeds seventeen Foot long.  It is impossible to kill them
with a Gun, unless you chance to hit them about the Eyes,
which is a much softer Place, than the rest of their impenetrable Armour.
They roar, and make a hideous Noise against bad Weather,
and before they come out of their Dens in the Spring.  I was pretty much
frightened with one of these once; which happened thus:  I had built a House
about half a Mile from an Indian Town, on the Fork of Neus-River,
where I dwelt by my self, excepting a young Indian Fellow, and a Bull-Dog,
that I had along with me.  I had not then been so long a Sojourner
in America, as to be throughly acquainted with this Creature.
One of them had got his Nest directly under my House, which stood on
pretty high Land, and by a Creek-side, in whose Banks his Entring-place was,
his Den reaching the Ground directly on which my House stood.
I was sitting alone by the Fire-side (about nine a Clock at Night,
some time in March) the Indian Fellow being gone to the Town,
to see his Relations; so that there was no body in the House
but my self and my Dog; when, all of a sudden, this ill-favour'd
Neighbour of mine, set up such a Roaring, that he made the House shake
about my Ears, and so continued, like a Bittern, (but a hundred times louder,
if possible) for four or five times.  The Dog stared, as if he was frightned
out of his Senses; nor indeed, could I imagine what it was,
having never heard one of them before.  Immediately again
I had another Lesson; and so a third.  Being at that time
amongst none but Savages, I began to suspect, they were working
some Piece of Conjuration under my House, to get away my Goods;
not but that, at another time, I have as little Faith in their,
or any others working Miracles, by diabolical Means, as any Person living.
At last, my Man came in, to whom when I had told the Story, he laugh'd at me,
and presently undeceiv'd me, by telling me what it was that made that Noise.
These Allegators lay Eggs, as the Ducks do; only they are longer shap'd,
larger, and a thicker Shell, than they have.  How long they are in hatching,
I cannot tell; but, as the Indians say, it is most part of the Summer,
they always lay by a Spring-Side, the young living in and about the same,
as soon as hatch'd.  Their Eggs are laid in Nests made in the Marshes,
and contain twenty or thirty Eggs.  Some of these Creatures afford
a great deal of Musk.  Their Tail, when cut of, looks very fair and white,
seemingly like the best of Veal.  Some People have eaten thereof, and say,
it is delicate Meat, when they happen not to be musky.  Their Flesh
is accounted proper for such as are troubled with the lame Distemper,
(a sort of Rhumatism) so is the Fat very prevailing to remove Aches and Pains,
by Unction.  The Teeth of this Creature, when dead, are taken out,
to make Chargers for Guns, being of several Sizes, fit for all Loads.
They are white, and would make pretty Snuff-Boxes, if wrought by an Artist.
After the Tail of the Allegator is separated from the Body,
it will move very freely for four days.

The Rattle-Snakes are found on all the Main of America, that I ever had
any Account of; being so call'd from the Rattle at the end of their Tails,
which is a Connexion of jointed Coverings, of an excrementitious Matter,
betwixt the Substance of a Nail, and a Horn, though each Tegmen
is very thin.  Nature seems to have design'd these, on purpose to give Warning
of such an approaching Danger, as the venomous Bite of these Snakes is.
Some of them grow to a very great Bigness, as six Foot in Length,
their Middle being the Thickness of the Small of a lusty Man's Leg.
We have an Account of much larger Serpents of this Kind;
but I never met them yet, although I have seen and kill'd abundance
in my time.  They are of an Orange, tawny, and blackish Colour, on the Back;
differing (as all Snakes do) in Colour, on the Belly; being of an Ash-Colour,
inclining to Lead.  The Male is easily distinguish'd from the Female,
by a black Velvet-Spot on his Head; and besides, his Head is smaller shaped,
and long.  Their Bite is venomous, if not speedily remedied;
especially, if the Wound be in a Vein, Nerve, Tendon, or Sinew;
when it is very difficult to cure.  The Indians are the best Physicians
for the Bite of these and all other venomous Creatures of this Country.
There are four sorts of Snake-Roots already discover'd, which Knowledge
came from the Indians, who have perform'd several great Cures.
The Rattle-Snakes are accounted the peaceablest in the World;
for they never attack any one, or injure them, unless they are trod upon,
or molested.  The most Danger of being bit by these Snakes, is for those
that survey Land in Carolina; yet I never heard of any Surveyor
that was kill'd, or hurt by them.  I have myself gone over
several of this Sort, and others; yet it pleased God, I never came
to any harm.  They have the Power, or Art (I know not which to call it)
to charm Squirrels, Hares, Partridges, or any such thing,
in such a manner, that they run directly into their Mouths.
This I have seen by a Squirrel and one of these Rattle-Snakes;
and other Snakes have, in some measure, the same Power.  The Rattle-Snakes
have many small Teeth, of which I cannot see they make any use;
for they swallow every thing whole; but the Teeth which poison, are only four;
two on each side of their Upper-Jaws.  These are bent like a Sickle,
and hang loose as if by a Joint.  Towards the setting on of these,
there is, in each Tooth, a little Hole, wherein you may just get in
the Point of a small Needle.  And here it is, that the Poison comes out,
(which is as green as Grass) and follows the Wound,
made by the Point of their Teeth.  They are much more venomous
in the Months of June and July, than they are in March,
April or September.  The hotter the Weather, the more poisonous.
Neither may we suppose, that they can renew their Poison as oft as they will;
for we have had a Person bit by one of these, who never rightly recover'd it,
and very hardly escaped with Life; a second Person bit in the same Place
by the same Snake, and receiv'd no more Harm, that if bitten with a Rat.
They cast their Skins every Year, and commonly abide near the Place
where the old Skin lies.  These cast Skins are used in Physick,
and the Rattles are reckon'd good to expedite the Birth.
The Gall is made up into Pills, with Clay, and kept for Use;
being given in Pestilential Fevers and the Small-Pox.  It is accounted
a noble Remedy, known to few, and held as a great Arcanum.
This Snake has two Nostrils on each side of his Nose.  Their Venom,
I have Reason to believe, effects no Harm, any otherwise than when
darted into the Wound by the Serpents Teeth.

{Ground Rattle-Snakes.}
The Ground Rattle-Snake, wrong nam'd, because it has nothing like Rattles.
It resembles the Rattle-Snake a little in Colour, but is darker,
and never grows to any considerable Bigness, not exceeding a Foot,
or sixteen Inches.  He is reckon'd amongst the worst of Snakes;
and stays out the longest of any Snake I know, before he returns
(in the Fall of the Leaf) to his Hole.

Of the Horn-Snakes I never saw but two, that I remember.
They are like the Rattle-Snake in Colour, but rather lighter.
They hiss exactly like a Goose, when any thing approaches them.
They strike at their Enemy with their Tail, and kill whatsoever
they wound with it, which is arm'd at the End with a horny Substance,
like a Cock's Spur.  This is their Weapon.  I have heard it credibly reported,
by those who said they were Eye-Witnesses, that a small Locust-Tree,
about the Thickness of a Man's Arm, being struck by one of these Snakes,
at Ten a Clock in the Morning, then verdant and flourishing,
at four in the Afternoon was dead, and the Leaves red and wither'd.
Doubtless, be it how it will, they are very venomous.  I think,
the Indians do not pretend to cure their Wound.

Of Water-Snakes there are four sorts.  The first is of the Horn-Snakes Colour,
though less.  The next is a very long Snake, differing in Colour,
and will make nothing to swim over a River a League wide.
They hang upon Birches and other Trees by the Water-Side.
I had the Fortune once to have one of them leap into my Boat,
as I was going up a narrow River; the Boat was full of Mats,
which I was glad to take out, to get rid of him.  They are reckon'd poisonous.
A third is much of an English Adder's Colour, but always
frequents the Salts, and lies under the Drift Seaweed,
where they are in abundance, and are accounted mischievous, when they bite.
The last is of a sooty black Colour, and frequents Ponds and Ditches.
What his Qualities are, I cannot tell.

Of the Swamp-Snakes there are three sorts, which are very near akin
to the Water-Snakes, and may be rank'd amongst them.

The Belly of the first is of a Carnation or Pink Colour;
his Back a dirty brown; they are large, but have not much Venom in them,
as ever I learnt.  The next is a large Snake, of a brown Dirt Colour,
and always abides in the Marshes.

The last is mottled, and very poisonous.  They dwell in Swamps Sides,
and Ponds, and have prodigious wide Mouths, and (though not long)
arrive to the Thickness of the Calf of a Man's Leg.

{Red-Belly Land-Snakes.}
These frequent the Land altogether, and are so call'd,
because of their red Bellies, which incline to an Orange-Colour.
Some have been bitten with these sort of Snakes, and not hurt;
when others have suffer'd very much by them.  Whether there be
two sorts of these Snakes, which we make no Difference of,
I cannot at present determine.

{Red-Back Snakes.}
I never saw but one of these, which I stept over, and did not see him;
till he that brought the Chain after me, spy'd him.  He has a red Back,
as the last has a red Belly.  They are a long, slender Snake, and very rare
to be met withal.  I enquired of the Indian that was along with me,
whether they were very venomous, who made Answer, that if he had bitten me,
even the Indians could not have cured it.

{Black Truncheon-Snake.}
This sort of Snake might very well have been rank'd with the Water-Snakes.
They lie under Roots of Trees, and on the Banks of Rivers.
When any thing disturbs them, they dart into the Water (which is Salt)
like an Arrow out of a Bow.  They are thick, and the shortest Snake
I ever saw.  What Good, or Harm, there is in them, I know not.
Some of these Water-Snakes will swallow a black Land-Snake,
half as long again as themselves.

{Scorpion Lizard.}
The Scorpion Lizard, is no more like a Scorpion, than a Hedge-Hog;
but they very commonly call him a Scorpion.  He is of the Lizard Kind,
but much bigger; his Back is of a dark Copper-Colour; his Belly an Orange;
he is very nimble in running up Trees, or on the Land, and is accounted
very poisonous.  He has the most Sets of Teeth in his Mouth and Throat,
that ever I saw.

{Green Lizard.}
Green Lizards are very harmless and beautiful, having a little Bladder
under their Throat, which they fill with Wind, and evacuate the same
at Pleasure.  They are of a most glorious Green, and very tame.
They resort to the Walls of Houses in the Summer Season,
and stand gazing on a Man, without any Concern or Fear.
There are several other Colours of these Lizards; but none so beautiful
as the green ones are.

Of Frogs we have several sorts; the most famous is the Bull-Frog, so call'd,
because he lows exactly like that Beast, which makes Strangers wonder
(when by the side of a Marsh) what's the matter, for they hear the Frogs low,
and can see no Cattle; he is very large.  I believe, I have seen one
with as much Meat on him, as a Pullet, if he had been dress'd.
The small green Frogs get upon Trees, and make a Noise.  There are
several other colour'd small Frogs; but the Common Land-Frog is likest a Toad,
only he leaps, and is not poisonous.  He is a great Devourer of Ants,
and the Snakes devour him.  These Frogs baked and beat to Powder,
and taken with Orrice-Root cures a Tympany.

{Long black Snake.}
The long, black Snake frequents the Land altogether,
and is the nimblest Creature living.  His Bite has no more Venom,
than a Prick with a Pin.  He is the best Mouser that can be;
for he leaves not one of that Vermine alive, where he comes.
He also kills the Rattle-Snake, wheresoever he meets him,
by twisting his Head about the Neck of the Rattle-Snake,
and whipping him to Death with his Tail.  This Whipster haunts
the Dairies of careless Housewives, and never misses to skim the Milk
clear of the Cream.  He is an excellent Egg-Merchant,
for he does not suck the Eggs, but swallows them whole (as all Snakes do.)
He will often swallow all the Eggs from under a Hen that sits,
and coil himself under the Hen, in the Nest, where sometimes
the Housewife finds him.  This Snake, for all his Agility, is so brittle,
that when he is pursued, and gets his Head into the Hole of a Tree,
if any body gets hold of the other end, he will twist, and break himself off
in the middle.  One of these Snakes, whose Neck is no thicker
that a Woman's little Finger, will swallow a Squirrel;
so much does that part stretch, in all these Creatures.

{King Snake.}
The King-Snake is the longest of all others, and not common;
no Snake (they say) will meddle with them.  I think they are not accounted
very venomous.  The Indians make Girdles and Sashes of their Skins.

{Green Snake.}
Green-Snakes are very small, tho' pretty (if any Beauty be allow'd to Snakes.)
Every one makes himself very familiar with them, and puts them in their Bosom,
because there is no manner of Harm in them.

The Corn-Snakes are but small ones; they are of a brown Colour,
mixed with tawny.  There is no more hurt in this, than in the green Snake.

Of those we call Vipers, there are two sorts.  People call these Vipers,
because they spread a very flat Head at any time when they are vex'd.
One of these is a grayish like the Italian Viper, the other black and short;
and is reckon'd amongst the worst of Snakes, for Venom.

Tortois, vulgarly call'd Turtle; I have rank'd these among the Insects,
because they lay Eggs, and I did not know well where to put them.  Among us
there are three sorts.  The first is the green Turtle, which is not common,
but is sometimes found on our Coast.  The next is the Hawks-bill,
which is common.  These two sorts are extraordinary Meat.
The third is Logger-Head, which Kind scarce any one covets,
except it be for the Eggs, which of this and all other Turtles,
are very good Food.  None of these sorts of Creatures Eggs
will ever admit the White to be harder than a Jelly; yet the Yolk,
with boiling, becomes as hard as any other Egg.

Of Terebins there are divers sorts, all which, to be brief, we will comprehend
under the Distinction of Land and Water-Terebins.

The Land-Terebin is of several Sizes, but generally Round-Mouth'd,
and not Hawks-Bill'd, as some are.  The Indians eat them.  Most of them
are good Meat, except the very large ones; and they are good Food too,
provided they are not Musky.  They are an utter Enemy to the Rattle-Snake,
for when the Terebin meets him, he catches hold of him a little below
his Neck, and draws his Head into his Shell, which makes the Snake
beat his Tail, and twist about with all the Strength and Violence imaginable,
to get away; but the Terebin soon dispatches him, and there leaves him.
These they call in Europe the Land Tortois; their Food is Snails, Tad-pools,
or young Frogs, Mushrooms, and the Dew and Slime of the Earth and Ponds.

Water Terebins are small; containing about as much Meat as a Pullet,
and are extraordinary Food; especially, in May and June.
When they lay, their Eggs are very good; but they have so many Enemies
that find them out, that the hundredth part never comes to Perfection.
The Sun and Sand hatch them, which come out the Bigness of a small Chesnut,
and seek their own Living.

We now come again to the Snakes.  The Brimstone is so call'd, I believe,
because it is almost of a Brimstone Colour.  They might as well
have call'd it a Glass-Snake, for it is as brittle as a Tobacco-Pipe,
so that if you give it the least Touch of a small Twigg,
it immediately breaks into several Pieces.  Some affirm,
that if you let it remain where you broke it, it will come together again.
What Harm there is in this brittle Ware, I cannot tell;
but I never knew any body hurt by them.

The Egg or Chicken-Snake is so call'd, because it is frequent about
the Hen-Yard, and eats Eggs and Chickens, they are of a dusky Soot Colour,
and will roll themselves round, and stick eighteen, or twenty Foot high,
by the side of a smooth-bark'd Pine, where there is no manner of Hold,
and there sun themselves, and sleep all the Sunny Part of the Day.
There is no great matter of Poison in them.

The Wood-Worms are of a Copper, shining Colour, scarce so thick
as your little Finger; are often found in Rotten-Trees.
They are accounted venomous, in case they bite, though I never knew any thing
hurt by them.  They never exceed four or five Inches in length.

The Reptiles, or smaller Insects, are too numerous to relate here,
this Country affording innumerable Quantities thereof;
as the Flying-Stags with Horns, Beetles, Butterflies, Grashoppers,
Locust, and several hundreds of uncouth Shapes, which in the Summer-Season
are discovered here in Carolina, the Description of which
requires a large Volume, which is not my Intent at present.
Besides, what the Mountainous Part of this Land may hereafter
lay open to our View, Time and Industry will discover,
for we that have settled but a small Share of this large Province,
cannot imagine, but there will be a great number of Discoveries made
by those that shall come hereafter into the Back-part of this Land,
and make Enquiries therein, when, at least, we consider that
the Westward of Carolina is quite different in Soil, Air, Weather,
Growth of Vegetables, and several Animals too, which we at present
are wholly Strangers to, and to seek for.  As to a right Knowledge thereof,
I say, when another Age is come, the Ingenious then in being
may stand upon the Shoulders of those that went before them,
adding their own Experiments to what was delivered down to them
by their Predecessors, and then there will be something
towards a complete Natural History, which (in these days)
would be no easie Undertaking to any Author that writes
truly and compendiously, as he ought to do.  It is sufficient at present,
to write an honest and fair Account of any of the Settlements,
in this new World, without wandring out of the Path of Truth,
or bespattering any Man's Reputation any wise concern'd
in the Government of the Colony; he that mixes Invectives
with Relations of this Nature rendering himself suspected of Partiality
in whatever he writes.  For my part, I wish all well, and he that has received
any severe Dealings from the Magistrate or his Superiours,
had best examine himself well, if he was not first in the Fault; if so,
then he can justly blame none but himself for what has happen'd to him.

Having thus gone thro' the Insects, as in the Table, except the Eel-Snake,
(so call'd, though very improperly, because he is nothing but a Loach,
that sucks, and cannot bite, as the Snakes do.)  He is very large,
commonly sixteen Inches, or a Foot and half long; having all the Properties
that other Loaches have, and dwells in Pools and Waters, as they do.
Notwithstanding, we have the same Loach as you have, in Bigness.

This is all that at present I shall mention, touching the Insects,
and so go on to give an Account of the Fowls and Birds,
that are properly found in Carolina, which are these.

{Birds in America more beautiful than in Europe.}
          Birds of Carolina.
    Eagle bald.
    Eagle gray.
    Fishing Hawk.
    Turkey Buzzard, or Vulture.
    Herring-tail'd Hawk.
    Black Birds, two sorts.
    Buntings two sorts.
    Green Plover.
    Plover gray or whistling.
    Turtle Dove.
    Wood-Peckers, five sorts.
    Mocking-birds, two sorts.
    Sparrows, two sorts.
    Red Bird.
    East-India Bat.
    Martins, two sorts.
    Diveling, or Swift.
    Humming Bird.
    The Tom-Tit, or Ox-Eye.
    Owls, two sorts.
    Scritch Owl.
    Baltimore bird.
    Throstle, no Singer.
    Whippoo Will.
    Reed Sparrow.
    Weet bird.
    Rice bird.
    Cranes and Storks.

{Water Fowl.}
          Water Fowl are,
    Swans, called Trompeters.
    Swans, called Hoopers.
    Geese, three sorts.
    Brant gray.
    Brant white.
    Sea-pies or pied Curlues.
    Will Willets.
    Great Gray Gulls.
    Old Wives.
    Sea Cock.
    Curlues, three sorts.
    Loons, two sorts.
    Bitterns, three sorts.
    Hern gray.
    Hern white.
    Water Pheasant.
    Little gray Gull.
    Little Fisher, or Dipper.
    Ducks, as in England.
    Ducks black, all Summer.
    Ducks pied, build on Trees.
    Ducks whistling, at Sapona.
    Ducks scarlet-eye at Esaw.
    Teal, two sorts.
    Black Flusterers, or bald Coot.
    Turkeys wild.
    Raft Fowl.
    Great black pied Gull.
    Blue Peter's.
    Bald Faces.
    Water Witch, or Ware Coot.

As the Eagle is reckon'd the King of Birds I have begun with him.
The first I shall speak of, is the bald Eagle; so call'd, because his Head,
to the middle of his Neck, and his Tail, is as white as Snow.
These Birds continually breed the Year round; for when the young Eagles
are just down'd, with a sort of white woolly Feathers, the Hen-Eagle
lays again, which Eggs are hatch'd by the Warmth of the young ones
in the Nest, so that the Flight of one Brood makes Room for the next,
that are but just hatch'd.  They prey on any living thing they can catch.
They are heavy of Flight, and cannot get their Food by Swiftness,
to help which there is a Fishawk that catches Fishes, and suffers the Eagle
to take them from her, although she is long-wing'd and a swift Flyer,
and can make far better way in her Flight than the Eagle can.  The bald Eagle
attends the Gunners in Winter, with all the Obsequiousness imaginable,
and when he shoots and kills any Fowl, the Eagle surely comes in for his Bird;
and besides, those that are wounded, and escape the Fowler,
fall to the Eagle's share.  He is an excellent Artist at stealing young Pigs,
which Prey he carries alive to his Nest, at which time the poor Pig
makes such a Noise over Head, that Strangers that have heard them cry,
and not seen the Bird and his Prey, have thought there were
Flying Sows and Pigs in that Country.  The Eagle's Nest is made of Twigs,
Sticks and Rubbish.  It is big enough to fill a handsome Carts Body,
and commonly so full of nasty Bones and Carcasses that it stinks
most offensively.  This Eagle is not bald, till he is one or two years old.

{Gray Eagle.}
The gray Eagle is altogether the same sort of Bird, as the Eagle in Europe;
therefore, we shall treat no farther of him.

The Fishing-Hawk is the Eagle's Jackal, which most commonly
(though not always) takes his Prey for him.  He is a large Bird,
being above two thirds as big as the Eagle.  He builds his Nest
as the Eagles do; that is, in a dead Cypress-Tree, either standing in,
or hard by, the Water.  The Eagle and this Bird seldom sit on a living Tree.
He is of a gray pied Colour, and the most dexterous Fowl in Nature
at Catching of Fish, which he wholly lives on, never eating any Flesh.

The Turkey-Buzzard of Carolina is a small Vulture, which lives on
any dead Carcasses.  They are about the Bigness of the Fishing-Hawk,
and have a nasty Smell with them.  They are of the Kites Colour,
and are reported to be an Enemy to Snakes, by killing all they meet withal
of that Kind.

{Herring-tail'd Hawk.}
The Herring, or Swallow-tail'd Hawk, is about the Bigness of a Falcon,
but a much longer Bird.  He is of a delicate Aurora-Colour;
the Pinions of his Wings, and End of his Tail are black.
He is a very beautiful Fowl, and never appears abroad but in the Summer.
His Prey is chiefly on Snakes, and will kill the biggest we have,
with a great deal of Dexterity and Ease.

Goshawks are very plentiful in Carolina.  They are not seemingly so large
as those from Muscovy; but appear to be a very brisk Bird.

The Falcon is much the same as in Europe, and promises to be a brave Bird,
tho' I never had any of them in my Hand; neither did I ever see any of them
in any other Posture than on the Wing, which always happen'd to be
in an Evening, and flying to the Westward; therefore, I believe,
they have their Abode and Nest among the Mountains, where we may expect
to find them, and several other Species that we are at present Strangers to.

The Merlin is a small Bird in Europe, but much smaller here;
yet he very nimbly kills the smaller sorts of Birds, and sometimes
the Partridge; if caught alive, he would be a great Rarity,
because of his Beauty and Smalness.

The Sparrow-Hawk in Carolina is no bigger than a Field-fare in England.
He flies at the Bush and sometimes kills a small Bird, but his chiefest Food
is Reptiles, as Beetles, Grashoppers, and such small things.
He is exactly of the same Colour, as the Sparrow-Hawk in England,
only has a blackish Hood by his Eyes.

Hobbies are the same here as in England, and are not often met withal.

{Ring Tail.}
The Ring-tail is a short-wing'd Hawk, preying on Mice, and such Vermine
in the Marshes, as in England.

Ravens, the same as in England, though very few.  I have not seen above six
in eight Years time.

Crows are here less than in England.  They are as good Meat as a Pigeon;
and never feed on any Carrion.  They are great Enemies to the Corn-Fields;
and cry and build almost like Rooks.

Of these we have two sorts, which are the worst Vermine in America.
They fly sometimes in such Flocks, that they destroy every thing before them.
They (both sorts) build in hollow Trees, as Starlings do.  The first sort
is near as big as a Dove, and is very white and delicate Food.
The other sort is very beautiful, and about the Bigness of the Owsel.
Part of their Head, next to the Bill, and the Pinions of their Wings,
are of an Orange, and glorious Crimson Colour.  They are as good Meat
as the former, tho' very few here (where large Fowl are so plenty)
ever trouble themselves to kill or dress them.

{Bunting two sorts.}
Of the Bunting-Larks we have two sorts, though the Heel of this Bird
is not so long as in Europe.  The first of these often accompany
the Black-birds, and sing as the Bunting-Larks in England do,
differing very little.  The first sort has an Orange-Colour
on the Tops of their Wings, and are as good Meat as those in Europe.
The other sort is something less, of a lighter Colour;
nothing differing therein from those in England, as to Feathers,
Bigness, and Meat.

The Pheasant of Carolina differs some small matter from
the English Pheasant, being not so big, and having some difference
in Feather; yet he is not any wise inferiour in Delicacy,
but is as good Meat, or rather finer.  He haunts the back Woods,
and is seldom found near the Inhabitants.

The Woodcocks live and breed here, though they are not in great plenty,
as I have seen them in some Parts of England, and other Places.
They want one third of the English Woodcock in Bigness;
but differ not in Shape, or Feather, save that their Breast
is of a Carnation Colour; and they make a Noise (when they are on the Wing)
like the Bells about a Hawk's Legs.  They are certainly as dainty Meat,
as any in the World.  Their Abode is in all Parts of this Country,
in low, boggy Ground, Springs, Swamps, and Percoarsons.

The Snipes here frequent the same Places, as they do in England,
and differ nothing from them.  They are the only wild Bird
that is nothing different from the Species of Europe, and keeps with us
all the Year.  In some Places, there are a great many of these Snipes.

Our Partridges in Carolina, very often take upon Trees,
and have a sort of Whistle and Call, quite different from those in England.
They are a very beautiful Bird, and great Destroyers of the Pease
in Plantations; wherefore, they set Traps, and catch many of them.
They have the same Feather, as in Europe; only the Cock wants
the Horse-Shooe, in lieu of which he has a fair Half-Circle over each Eye.
These (as well as the Woodcock) are less than the European Bird;
but far finer Meat.  They might be easily transported to any Place,
because they take to eating, after caught.

The Moorhens are of the black Game.  I am inform'd, that the gray Game
haunts the Hills.  They never come into the Settlement,
but keep in the hilly Parts.

Jays are here common, and very mischievous, in devouring our Fruit,
and spoiling more than they eat.  They are abundantly more beautiful,
and finer feather'd than those in Europe, and not above half so big.

The Lap-wing or Green-Plover are here very common.  They cry pretty much,
as the English Plovers do; and differ not much in Feather,
but want a third of their Bigness.

The gray or whistling Plover, are very scarce amongst us.
I never saw any but three times, that fell and settled on the Ground.
They differ very little from those in Europe, as far as I could discern.
I have seen several great Flocks of them fly over head; therefore, believe,
they inhabit the Valleys near the Mountains.

Our wild Pigeons, are like the Wood-Queese or Stock-Doves,
only have a longer Tail.  They leave us in the Summer.  This sort of Pigeon
(as I said before) is the most like our Stock-Doves, or Wood-Pigeons
that we have in England; only these differ in their Tails,
which are very long, much like a Parrakeeto's?  You must understand,
that these Birds do not breed amongst us, (who are settled at,
and near the Mouths of the Rivers, as I have intimated to you before)
but come down (especially in hard Winters) amongst the Inhabitants,
in great Flocks, as they were seen to do in the Year 1707,
which was the hardest Winter that ever was known, since Carolina
has been seated by the Christians.  And if that Country had such hard Weather,
what must be expected of the severe Winters in Pensylvania, New-York,
and New-England, where Winters are ten times (if possible)
colder than with us.  Although the Flocks are, in such Extremities,
very numerous; yet they are not to be mention'd in Comparison with
the great and infinite Numbers of these Fowl, that are met withal
about a hundred, or a hundred and fifty, Miles to the Westward of the Places
where we at present live; and where these Pigeons come down, in quest of
a small sort of Acorns, which in those Parts are plentifully found.
They are the same we call Turky-Acorns, because the wild Turkies
feed very much thereon; And for the same Reason, those Trees that bear them,
are call'd Turky-Oaks.  I saw such prodigious Flocks of these Pigeons,
in January or February, 1701-2, (which were in the hilly Country,
between the great Nation of the Esaw Indians, and the pleasant Stream
of Sapona, which is the West-Branch of Clarendon, or Cape-Fair River)
that they had broke down the Limbs of a greate a Wood-Pigeon,
that build in Trees, because of their frequent sitting thereon,
and their Roosting on Trees always at Night, under which
their Dung commonly lies half a Foot thick, and kills every thing that grows
where it falls.

{Turtle Doves.}
Turtle Doves are here very plentiful; they devour the Pease; for which Reason,
People make Traps and catch them.

The Parrakeetos are of a green Colour, and Orange-Colour'd
half way their Head.  Of these and the Allegators, there is none found
to the Northward of this Province.  They visit us first,
when Mulberries are ripe, which Fruit they love extremely.
They peck the Apples, to eat the Kernels, so that the Fruit rots and perishes.
They are mischievous to Orchards.  They are often taken alive, and will become
familiar and tame in two days.  They have their Nests in hollow Trees,
in low, swampy Ground.  They devour the Birch-Buds in April,
and lie hidden when the Weather is frosty and hard.

The Thrushes in America, are the same as in England,
and red under the Wings.  They never appear amongst us but in hard Weather,
and presently leave us again.

Of Wood-peckers, we have four sorts.  The first is as big as a Pigeon,
being of a dark brown Colour, with a white Cross on his Back, his Eyes circled
with white, and on his Head stands a Tuft of beautiful Scarlet Feathers.
His Cry is heard a long way; and he flies from one rotten Tree to another,
to get Grubs, which is the Food he lives on.

The second sort are of an Olive-Colour, striped with yellow.  They eat Worms
as well as Grubs, and are about the Bigness of those in Europe.

The third is the same Bigness as the last; he is pied with black and white,
has a Crimson Head, without a Topping, and is a Plague to the Corn and Fruit;
especially the Apples.  He opens the Covering of the young Corn,
so that the Rain gets in, and rots it.

The fourth sort of these Wood-peckers, is a black and white speckled,
or mottled; the finest I ever saw.  The Cock has a red Crown;
he is not near so big as the others; his Food is Grubs, Corn,
and other creeping Insects.  He is not very wild, but will let one
come up to him, then shifts on the other side the Tree,
from your sight; and so dodges you for a long time together.
He is about the size of an English Lark.

The Mocking-Bird is about as big as a Throstle in England, but longer;
they are of a white, and gray Colour, and are held to be
the Choristers of America, as indeed they are.  They sing with
the greatest Diversity of Notes, that is possible for a Bird to change to.
They may be bred up, and will sing with us tame in Cages;
yet I never take any of their Nests, altho' they build yearly
in my Fruit-Trees, because I have their Company, as much as if tame,
as to the singing Part.  They often sit upon our Chimneys in Summer,
there being then no Fire in them, and sing the whole Evening
and most part of the Night.  They are always attending our Dwellings;
and feed upon Mulberries and other Berries and Fruits;
especially the Mechoacan-berry, which grows here very plentifully.

{2d. sort.}
There is another sort call'd the Ground-Mocking-Bird.  She is
the same bigness, and of a Cinnamon Colour.  This Bird sings excellently well,
but is not so common amongst us as the former.

The Cat-Bird, so nam'd, because it makes a Noise exactly like young Cats.
They have a blackish Head, and an Ash-coloured Body,
and have no other Note that I know of.  They are no bigger than a Lark,
yet will fight a Crow or any other great Bird.

The Cuckoo of Carolina may not properly be so call'd,
because she never uses that Cry; yet she is of the same Bigness and Feather,
and sucks the Small-Birds Eggs, as the English Cuckoo does.

A Blue-Bird is the exact Bigness of a Robin-red-breast.
The Cock has the same colour'd Breast as the Robin has, and his Back,
and all the other Parts of him, are of as fine a Blue, as can possibly be seen
in any thing in the World.  He has a Cry, and a Whistle.  They hide themselves
all the Winter.

Bulfinches, in America, differ something from those in Europe,
in their Feathers, tho' not in their Bigness.  I never knew any one tame,
therefore know not, what they might be brought to.

The Nightingales are different in Plumes from those in Europe.
They always frequent the low Groves, where they sing very prettily all Night.

Hedge-Sparrows are here, though few Hedges.  They differ scarce any thing
in Plume or Bigness, only I never heard this Whistle,
as the English one does; especially after Rain.

The Wren is the same as in Europe, yet I never heard any Note she has
in Carolina.

Sparrows here differ in Feather from the English.  We have
several Species of Birds call'd Sparrows, one of them much resembling
the Bird call'd a Corinthian Sparrow.

The Lark with us resorts to the Savannas, or natural Meads,
and green Marshes.  He is colour'd and heel'd as the Lark is;
but his Breast is of a glittering fair Lemon-Colour, and he is as big
as a Fieldfare, and very fine Food.

The Red-Birds (whose Cock is all over of a rich Scarlet Feather,
with a tufted Crown on his Head, of the same Colour)
are the Bigness of a Bunting-Lark, and very hardy, having a strong thick Bill.
They will sing very prettily, when taken old, and put in a Cage.
They are good Birds to turn a Cage with Bells; or if taught,
as the Bulfinch is, I believe, would prove very docible.

{East-India Bats.}
East-India Bats or Musqueto Hawks, are the Bigness of a Cuckoo,
and much of the same Colour.  They are so call'd, because the same sort
is found in the East-Indies.  They appear only in the Summer,
and live on Flies, which they catch in the Air, as Gnats, Musquetos, &c.

Martins are here of two sorts.  The first is the same as in England;
the other as big as a Black-Bird.  They have white Throats and Breasts,
with black Backs.  The Planters put Gourds on standing Poles,
on purpose for these Fowl to build in, because they are a very Warlike Bird,
and beat the Crows from the Plantations.

The Swift, or Diveling, the same as in England.

Swallows, the same as in England.

The Humming-Bird is the Miracle of all our wing'd Animals;
He is feather'd as a Bird, and gets his Living as the Bees,
by sucking the Honey from each Flower.  In some of the larger sort of Flowers,
he will bury himself, by diving to suck the bottom of it, so that
he is quite cover'd, and oftentimes Children catch them in those Flowers,
and keep them alive for five or six days.  They are of different Colours,
the Cock differing from the Hen.  The Cock is of a green, red,
Aurora, and other Colours mixt.  He is much less than a Wren,
and very nimble.  His Nest is one of the greatest Pieces of Workmanship
the whole Tribe of wing'd Animals can shew, it commonly hanging
on a single Bryar, most artificially woven, a small Hole being left
to go in and out at.  The Eggs are the Bigness of Pease.

The Tom-Tit, or Ox-Eyes, as in England.

Of Owls we have two sorts; the smaller sort is like ours in England;
the other sort is as big as a middling Goose, and has a prodigious Head.
They make a fearful Hollowing in the Night-time, like a Man,
whereby they often make Strangers lose their way in the Woods.

{Scritch Owls.}
Scritch Owls, much the same as in Europe.

The Baltimore-Bird, so call'd from the Lord Baltimore,
Proprietor of all Maryland, in which Province many of them are found.
They are the Bigness of a Linnet, with yellow Wings, and beautiful
in other Colours.

Throstle, the same Size and Feather as in Europe, but I never could hear
any of them sing.

{Weet Bird.}
The Weet, so call'd because he cries always before Rain;
he resembles nearest the Fire-tail.

{Cranes and Storks.}
Cranes use the Savannas, low Ground, and Frogs; they are above five Foot-high,
when extended; are of a Cream Colour, and have a Crimson Spot
on the Crown of their Heads.  Their Quills are excellent for Pens;
their Flesh makes the best Broth, yet is very hard to digest.
Among them often frequent Storks, which are here seen, and no where besides
in America, that I have yet heard of.  The Cranes are easily
bred up tame, and are excellent in a Garden to destroy Frogs, Worms,
and other Vermine.

The Snow-Birds are most numerous in the North Parts of America,
where there are great Snows.  They visit us sometimes in Carolina,
when the Weather is harder than ordinary.  They are like the Stones Smach,
or Wheat-Ears, and are delicate Meat.

{Yellow Wings.}
These Yellow-Wings are a very small Bird, of a Linnet's Colour,
but Wings as yellow as Gold.  They frequent high up in our Rivers, and Creeks,
and keep themselves in the thick Bushes, very difficult to be seen
in the Spring.  They sing very prettily.

Whippoo-Will, so nam'd, because it makes those Words exactly.
They are the Bigness of a Thrush, and call their Note under a Bush,
on the Ground, hard to be seen, though you hear them never so plain.
They are more plentiful in Virginia, than with us in Carolina;
for I never heard but one that was near the Settlement, and that was hard-by
an Indian Town.

{Red Sparrow.}
This nearest resembles a Sparrow, and is the most common Small-Bird we have,
therefore we call them so.  They are brown, and red, cinnamon Colour, striped.

{Water Fowl.}
Of the Swans we have two sorts; the one we call Trompeters;
because of a sort of trompeting Noise they make.

These are the largest sort we have, which come in great Flocks in the Winter,
and stay, commonly, in the fresh Rivers till February,
that the Spring comes on, when they go to the Lakes to breed.
A Cygnet, that is, a last Year's Swan, is accounted a delicate Dish,
as indeed it is.  They are known by their Head and Feathers,
which are not so white as Old ones.

The sort of Swans call'd Hoopers, are the least.  They abide more
in the Salt-Water, and are equally valuable, for Food, with the former.
It is observable, that neither of these have a black Piece of horny Flesh
down the Head, and Bill, as they have in England.

{Wild Geese.}
Of Geese we have three sorts, differing from each other only in size.
Ours are not the common Geese that are in the Fens in England,
but the other sorts, with black Heads and Necks.

{Gray Brants.}
The gray Brant, or Barnicle, is here very plentiful, as all
other Water-Fowl are, in the Winter-Season.  They are the same
which they call Barnicles in Great-Britain, and are a very good Fowl,
and eat well.

{White Brant.}
There is also a white Brant, very plentiful in America.
This Bird is all over as white as Snow, except the Tips of his Wings,
and those are black.  They eat the Roots of Sedge and Grass
in the Marshes and Savannas, which they tear up like Hogs.
The best way to kill these Fowl is, to burn a Piece of Marsh, or Savanna,
and as soon as it is burnt, they will come in great Flocks to get the Roots,
where you kill what you please of them.  They are as good Meat as the other,
only their Feathers are stubbed, and good for little.

{Sea-Pie, or Curlue.}
The Sea-Pie, or gray Curlue, is about the Bigness of a very large Pigeon,
but longer.  He has a long Bill as other Curlues have,
which is the Colour of an English Owsel's, that is, yellow; as are his Legs.
He frequents the Sand-beaches on the Sea-side, and when kill'd,
is inferiour to no Fowl I ever eat of.

{Will Willet.}
Will Willet is so called from his Cry, which he very exactly
calls Will Willet, as he flies.  His Bill is like a Curlue's, or Woodcock's,
and has much such a Body as the other, yet not so tall.  He is good Meat.

{Great gray Gull.}
The great gray Gulls are good Meat, and as large as a Pullet.
They lay large Eggs, which are found in very great Quantities,
on the Islands in our Sound, in the Months of June, and July.
The young Squabs are very good Victuals, and often prove a Relief
to Travellers by Water, that have spent their Provisions.

{Old Wives.}
Old Wives are a black and white pied Gull with extraordinary long Wings,
and a golden colour'd Bill and Feet.  He makes a dismal Noise, as he flies,
and ever and anon dips his Bill in the Salt-Water.  I never knew him eaten.

The Sea-Cock is a Gull that crows at Break of Day, and in the Morning,
exactly like a Dunghil Cock, which Cry seems very pleasant
in those uninhabited Places.  He is never eaten.

{Curlues.  Coots, Kingfisher, Loons, two sorts.}
Of Curlues there are three sorts, and vast Numbers of each.
They have all long Bills, and differ neither in Colour, nor Shape,
only in Size.  The largest is as big as a good Hen, the smaller
the Bigness of a Snipe, or something bigger.

{Bitterns, three sorts.}
We have three sorts of Bitterns in Carolina.  The first is the same
as in England; the second of a deep brown, with a great Topping,
and yellowish white Throat and Breast, and is lesser than the former;
the last is no bigger than a Wood-cock, and near the Colour of the second.

We have the same Herns, as in England.

White Herns are here very plentiful.  I have seen above thirty
sit on one Tree, at a time.  They are as white as Milk, and fly very slowly.

The Water-Pheasant (very improperly call'd so) are a Water-Fowl
of the Duck-Kind, having a Topping, of pretty Feathers, which sets them out.
They are very good Meat.

{Little gray Gull.}
The little Gray-Gull is of a curious gray Colour, and abides near the Sea.
He is about the Bigness of a Whistling-Plover, and delicate Food.

We have the little Dipper or Fisher, that catches Fish so dexterously,
the same as you have in the Islands of Scilly.

{Duck and Mallard.}
We have of the same Ducks, and Mallards with green Heads, in great Flocks.
They are accounted the coarsest sort of our Water-Fowl.

{Black Duck.}
The black Duck is full as large as the other, and good Meat.
She stays with us all the Summer, and breeds.  These are made tame by some,
and prove good Domesticks.

{Summer Duck.}
We have another Duck that stays with us all the Summer.
She has a great Topping, is pied, and very beautiful.  She builds her Nest
in a Wood-pecker's Hole, very often sixty or seventy Foot high.

{Whistling Duck.}
Towards the Mountains in the hilly Country, on the West-Branch
of Caip-Fair Inlet, we saw great Flocks of pretty pied Ducks,
that whistled as they flew, or as they fed.  I did not kill any of them.

{Scarlet Ey'd Duck.}
We kill'd a curious sort of Ducks, in the Country of the Esaw-Indians,
which were of many beautiful Colours.  Their Eyes were red,
having a red Circle of Flesh for their Eye-lids; and were very good to eat.

The Blue-Wings are less than a Duck, but fine Meat.  These are the first Fowls
that appear to us in the Fall of the Leaf, coming then in great Flocks,
as we suppose, from Canada, and the Lakes that lie behind us.

Widgeons, the same as in Europe, are here in great Plenty.

{Teal two sorts.}
We have the same Teal, as in England, and another sort
that frequents the Fresh-Water, and are always nodding their Heads.
They are smaller than the common Teal, and dainty Meat.

Shovellers (a sort of Duck) are gray, with a black Head.
They are a very good Fowl.

These are called Whistlers, from the whistling Noise they make, as they fly.

{Black-Flusterers, or Bald-Coot.}
Black Flusterers; some call these Old Wives.  They are as black as Ink.
The Cocks have white Faces.  They always remain in the midst of Rivers,
and feed upon drift Grass, Carnels or Sea-Nettles.  They are the fattest Fowl
I ever saw, and sometimes so heavy with Flesh, that they cannot rise
out of the Water.  They make an odd sort of Noise when they fly.
What Meat they are, I could never learn.  Some call these the great bald Coot.

The wild Turkeys I should have spoken of, when I treated of the Land-Fowl.
There are great Flocks of these in Carolina.  I have seen about five hundred
in a Flock; some of them are very large.  I never weigh'd any myself,
but have been inform'd of one that weigh'd near sixty Pound Weight.
I have seen half a Turkey feed eight hungry Men two Meals.
Sometimes the wild breed with the tame ones, which, they reckon,
makes them very hardy, as I believe it must.  I see no manner of Difference
betwixt the wild Turkeys and the tame ones; only the wild are ever
of one Colour, (viz.) a dark gray, or brown, and are excellent Food.
They feed on Acorns, Huckle-Berries, and many other sorts of Berries
that Carolina affords.  The Eggs taken from the Nest, and hatch'd
under a Hen, will yet retain a wild Nature, and commonly leave you,
and run wild at last, and will never be got into a House to roost,
but always pearch on some high Tree, hard-by the House,
and separate themselves from the tame sort, although (at the same time)
they tread and breed together.  I have been inform'd, that if you take
these wild Eggs, when just on the point of being hatch'd,
and dip them (for some small time) in a Bowl of Milk-warm Water,
it will take off their wild Nature, and make them as tame and domestick
as the others.  Some Indians have brought these wild Breed hatch'd at home,
to be a Decoy to bring others to roost near their Cabins,
which they have shot.  But to return to the Water-Fowl.

Fishermen are like a Duck, but have a narrow Bill, with Setts of Teeth.
They live on very small Fish, which they catch as they swim along.
They taste Fishy.  The best way to order them, is, upon occasion,
to pull out the Oil-Box from the Rump, and then bury them five or six Hours
under Ground.  Then they become tolerable.

Of Divers there are two sorts; the one pied, the other gray; both good Meat.

Raft-Fowl includes all the sorts of small Ducks and Teal,
that go in Rafts along the Shoar, and are of several sorts,
that we know no Name for.

These are a whitish Fowl, about the Bigness of a Brant;
they come to us after Christmas, in very great Flocks, in all our Rivers.
They are a very good Meat, but hard to kill, because hard to come near.
They will dive and endure a great deal of Shot.

Red-Heads, a lesser Fowl than Bull-Necks, are very sweet Food,
and plentiful in our Rivers and Creeks.

Tropick-Birds are a white Mew, with a forked Tail.  They are so call'd,
because they are plentifully met withal under the Tropicks, and thereabouts.

The Pellican of the Wilderness cannot be the same as ours;
this being a Water-Fowl, with a great natural Wen or Pouch under his Throat,
in which he keeps his Prey of Fish, which is what he lives on.
He is Web-footed, like a Goose, and shap'd like a Duck,
but is a very large Fowl, bigger than a Goose.  He is never eaten as Food;
They make Tobacco-pouches of his Maw.

Cormorants are very well known in some Parts of England;
we have great Flocks of them with us, especially against the Herrings run,
which is in March and April; then they sit upon Logs of dry Wood
in the Water, and catch the Fish.

The Gannet is a large white Fowl, having one Part of his Wings black;
he lives on Fish, as the Pellican.  His Fat or Grease,
is as yellow as Saffron, and the best thing known, to preserve Fire-Arms,
from Rust.

Shear-Waters are a longer Fowl than a Duck; some of them lie on the Coast,
whilst others range the Seas all over.  Sometimes they are met
five hundred Leagues from Land.  They live without drinking any fresh Water.

We have a great pied Gull, black and white, which seems to have a black Hood
on his Head; these lay very fair Eggs which are good; as are the young ones
in the Season.

Marsh-Hen, much the same as in Europe, only she makes another sort of Noise,
and much shriller.

The same as you call Water-Hens in England, are here very numerous,
and not regarded for eating.

The Sand-Birds are about the Bigness of a Lark, and frequent our Sand-Beaches;
they are a dainty Food, if you will bestow Time and Ammunition to kill them.

These are called Runners; because if you run after them,
they will run along the Sands and not offer to get up;
so that you may often drive them together to shoot as you please.
They are a pleasant small Bird.

A sort of Snipe, but sucks not his Food; they are almost the same
as in England.

Swaddle-Bills are a sort of an ash-colour'd Duck, which have
an extraordinary broad Bill, and are good Meat; they are not common
as the others are.

The same Mew as in England, being a white, slender Bird, with red Feet.

The same as in England.

The bald, or white Faces are a good Fowl.  They cannot dive,
and are easily shotten.

Water-Witch, or Ware-Coots, are a Fowl with Down and no Feathers;
they dive incomparably, so that no Fowler can hit them.
They can neither fly, nor go; but get into the Fish-wares,
and cannot fly over the Rods, and so are taken.

Thus have we given an Account of what Fowl has come to our Knowledge,
since our Abode in Carolina; except some that, perhaps,
have slipt our Memory, and so are left out of our Catalogue.
Proceed we now to treat of the Inhabitants of the Watry Element,
which tho' we can as yet do but very imperfectly; yet we are willing
to oblige the Curious with the best Account that is in our Power
to present them withal.

          The Fish in the salt, and fresh Waters of Carolina, are,
    Whales, several sorts.
    Sharks, two sorts.
    Drum, red.
    Drum-Fish, black.
    Bass, or Rock-Fish.
    Guard, white.
    Guard, green.
    Scate or Stingray.
    Trouts of the Salt Water.

          Fresh-Water Fish are,
    Pearch English.
    Pearch, white.
    Pearch, brown, or Welch-men.
    Pearch, flat, and mottled, or Irishmen.
    Pearch small and flat, with red Spots, call'd round Robins.

          The Shell-Fish are.
    Large Crabs, call'd Stone-Crabs.
    Smaller flat Crabs.
    Oysters great and small.
    Man of Noses.
    Periwinkles, or Wilks.
    Spanish or Pearl-Oysters.
    Tortois and Terebin, accounted for among the Insects.

        Fresh Water.

Whales are very numerous, on the Coast of North Carolina,
from which they make Oil, Bone, &c. to the great Advantage of those
inhabiting the Sand-Banks, along the Ocean, where these Whales come ashore,
none being struck or kill'd with a Harpoon in this Place,
as they are to the Northward, and elsewhere; all those Fish being found dead
on the Shoar, most commonly by those that inhabit the Banks, and Sea-side,
where they dwell, for that Intent, and for the Benefit of Wrecks,
which sometimes fall in upon that Shoar.

Of these Monsters there are four sorts; the first, which is most
choice and rich, is the Sperma Caeti Whale, from which the Sperma Caeti
is taken.  These are rich Prizes; but I never heard but of one found
on this Coast, which was near Currituck-Inlet.

The other sorts are of a prodigious Bigness.  Of these the Bone and Oil
is made; the Oil being the Blubber, or oily Flesh, or Fat of that Fish boil'd.
These differ not only in Colour, some being pied, others not,
but very much in shape, one being call'd a Bottle-Nosed Whale,
the other a Shovel-Nose, which is as different as a Salmon from a Sturgeon.
These Fish seldom come ashoar with their Tongues in their Heads,
the Thrasher (which is the Whale's mortal Enemy, wheresoever he meets him)
eating that out of his Head, as soon as he and the Sword-Fish have kill'd him.
For when the Whale-catchers (in other Parts) kill any of these Fish,
they eat the Tongue, and esteem it an excellent Dish.

There is another sort of these Whales, or great Fish,
though not common.  I never knew of above one of that sort,
found on the Coast of North Carolina, and he was contrary, in Shape,
to all others ever found before him; being sixty Foot in Length,
and not above three or four Foot Diameter.  Some Indians in America
will go out to Sea, and get upon a Whales Back, and peg or plug up his Spouts,
and so kill him.

The Thrashers are large Fish, and mortal Enemies to the Whale,
as I said before.  They make good Oil; but are seldom found.

The Divel-Fish lies at some of our Inlets, and, as near as I can describe him,
is shap'd like a Scate, or Stingray; only he has on his Head
a Pair of very thick strong Horns, and is of a monstrous Size, and Strength;
for this Fish has been known to weigh a Sloop's Anchor,
and run with the Vessel a League or two, and bring her back, against Tide,
to almost the same Place.  Doubtless, they may afford good Oil;
but I have no Experience of any Profits which arise from them.

The Sword-Fish is the other of the Whale's Enemies, and joins
with the Thrasher to destroy that Monster.  After they have overcome him,
they eat his Tongue, as I said before, and the Whale drives ashoar.

Crampois is a large Fish, and by some accounted a young Whale;
but it is not so; neither is it more than twenty five or thirty Foot long.
They spout as the Whale does, and when taken yield good Oil.

Bottle-Noses are between the Crampois and Porpois, and lie near the Soundings.
They are never seen to swim leisurely, as sometimes all other Fish do,
but are continually running after their Prey in Great Shoals,
like wild Horses, leaping now and then above the Water.  The French
esteem them good Food, and eat them both fresh and salt.

Porpoises are frequent, all over the Ocean and Rivers that are salt;
nay, we have a Fresh-Water Lake in the great Sound of North Carolina
that has Porpoises in it.  And several sorts of other unknown Fish,
as the Indians say, that we are wholly Strangers to.  As to the Porpoises,
they make good Oil; they prey upon other Fish as Drums, yet never are known
to take a Bait, so as to be catch'd with a Hook.

Of these there are two sorts; one call'd Paracooda-Noses;
the other Shovel-Noses; they cannot take their Prey before
they turn themselves on their Backs; wherefore some Negro's,
and others, that can swim and dive well, go naked into the Water,
with a Knife in their Hand, and fight the Shark, and very commonly kill him,
or wound him so, that he turns Tail, and runs away.  Their Livors make
good Oil to dress Leather withal; the Bones found in their Head
are said to hasten the Birth, and ease the Stone, by bringing it away.
Their Meat is eaten in scarce times; but I never could away with it,
though a great Lover of Fish.  Their Back-Bone is of one entire Thickness.
Of the Bones, or Joints, I have known Buttons made, which serve well enough
in scarce Times, and remote Places.

The Dog-Fish are a small sort of the Shark Kind; and are caught
with Hook and Line, fishing for Drums.  They say, they are good Meat;
but we have so many other sorts of delicate Fish, that I shall hardly ever
make Tryal what they are.

Spanish Mackarel are, in Colour and Shape, like the common Mackarel,
only much thicker.  They are caught with Hook and Line at the Inlets,
and sometimes out a little way at Sea.  They are a very fine hard Fish,
and of good Taste.  They are about two Foot long, or better.

Cavallies are taken in the same Places.  They are of a brownish Colour,
have exceeding small Scales, and a very thick Skin; they are as firm a Fish
as ever I saw; therefore will keep sweet (in the hot Weather) two days,
when others will stink in half a day, unless salted.  They ought to be scaled
as soon as taken; otherwise you must pull off the Skin and Scales,
when boiled; the Skin being the choicest of the Fish.  The Meat,
which is white and large, is dress'd with this Fish.

Boneto's are a very palatable Fish, and near a Yard long.
They haunt the Inlets and Water near the Ocean; and are killed
with the Harpoon, and Fishgig.

The Blue Fish is one of our best Fishes, and always very fat.
They are as long as a Salmon, and indeed, I think, full as good Meat.
These Fish come (in the Fall of the Year) generally after
there has been one black Frost, when there appear great Shoals of them.
The Hatteras Indians, and others, run into the Sands of the Sea,
and strike them, though some of these Fish have caused
Sickness and violent Burnings after eating of them, which is found
to proceed from the Gall that is broken in some of them, and is hurtful.
Sometimes, many Cart-loads of these are thrown and left dry on the Sea side,
which comes by their eager Pursuit of the small Fish,
in which they run themselves ashoar, and the Tide leaving them,
they cannot recover the Water again.  They are called Blue-Fish,
because they are of that Colour, and have a forked Tail,
and are shaped like a Dolphin.

The Red Drum is a large Fish much bigger than the Blue-Fish.  The Body of this
is good firm Meat, but the Head is beyond all the Fish I ever met withal
for an excellent Dish.  We have greater Numbers of these Fish,
than of any other sort.  People go down and catch as many Barrels full
as they please, with Hook and Line, especially every young Flood,
when they bite.  These are salted up, and transported to other Colonies,
that are bare of Provisions.

Black Drums are a thicker-made Fish than the Red Drum,
being shap'd like a fat Pig; they are a very good Fish,
but not so common with us as to the Northward.

The Angel-Fish is shaped like an English Bream.  He is so call'd,
from his golden Colour, which shines all about his Head and Belly.
This is accounted a very good Fish, as are most in these Parts.
The Bermudians have the same sort of Fish, and esteem them very much.

Bass or Rock is both in Salt and Fresh-Water; when young,
he much resembles a Grayling, but grows to the size of the large Cod-Fish.
They are a very good firm Fish.  Their Heads are souced,
and make a noble Dish, if large.

Sheeps-Head has the general Vogue of being the choicest Fish in this Place.
Indeed, it is a very delicate Fish, and well relish'd; yet I think,
there are several others full as good as the Sheeps-Head.
He is much of the Bigness of the Angel-Fish, and flat as he is;
they sometimes weigh two or three Pound Weight.  This Fish hath Teeth
like a Sheep, and is therefore so call'd.

Plaice are here very large, and plentiful, being the same as in England.

Flounders should have gone amongst the Fresh-Water Fish,
because they are caught there, in great Plenty.

Soles are a Fish we have but lately discover'd; they are as good,
as in any other Part.

Mullets, the same as in England, and great Plenty in all Places
where the Water is salt or brackish.

Shads are a sweet Fish, but very bony; they are very plentiful
at some Seasons.

Fat-Backs are a small Fish, like Mullets, but the fattest ever known.
They put nothing into the Pan, to fry these.  They are excellent sweet Food.

{White Guard-Fish.}
The white Guard-Fish is shaped almost like a Pike, but slenderer;
his Mouth has a long small Bill set with Teeth, in which he catches
small Fish; his Scales are knit together like Armour.  When they dress him,
they strip him, taking off Scales and Skin together.  His Meat is very white,
and rather looks like Flesh than Fish.  The English account them
no good Fish; but the Indians do.  The Gall of this Fish is green,
and a violent Cathartick, if taken inwardly.

The green Guard is shaped, in all respects, like the other,
save that his Scales are very small and fine.  He is indifferent good Meat;
his Bones, when boil'd or fry'd, remain as green as Grass.
The same sort of Fish come before the Mackarel in England.

Scate, or Stingray, the same as in England, and very common;
but the great Plenty of other Fish makes these not regarded;
for few or none eat them in Carolina, though they are almost
at every ones Door.

Thornbacks are the same as in England.  They are not so common
as the Scate and Whip-Rays.

Congar-Eels always remain in the Salt-Water; they are much more known
in the Northward Parts of America, than with us.

Lampreys are not common; I never saw but one, which was large,
and caught by the Indians, in a Ware.  They would not eat him,
but gave him to me.

Eels are no where in the World better, or more plentiful, than in Carolina.

Sun-Fish are flat and rounder than a Bream, and are reckon'd
a fine-tasted Fish, and not without Reason.  They are much
the size of Angel-Fish.

Toad-Fish are nothing but a Skin full of Prickles, and a few Bones;
they are as ugly as a Toad, and preserv'd to look upon,
and good for nothing else.

They are taken by a Bait, near the Inlet, or out at Sea a little way.
They are blackish, and exactly like a Tench, except in the Back-fins,
which have Prickles like a Pearch.  They are as good, if not better
than any Tench.

{Salt-Water Trouts.}
Trouts of the Salt-Water are exactly shaped like the Trouts in Europe,
having blackish, not red Spots.  They are in the Salts,
and are not red within, but white, yet a very good Fish.  They are so tender,
that if they are in or near fresh Water, and a sudden Frost come,
they are benumm'd, and float on the Surface of the Water, as if dead;
and then they take up Canoe-Loads of them.  If you put them into warm Water,
they presently recover.

The Crocus is a Fish, in Shape like a Pearch, and in Taste like a Whiting.
They croke and make a Noise in your Hand, when taken with Hook or Net.
They are very good.

The Herrings in Carolina are not so large as in Europe.
They spawn there in March and April, running up the fresh Rivers
and small fresh Runs of Water in great Shoals, where they are taken.
They become red if salted; and, drest with Vinegar and Oil,
resemble an Anchovy very much; for they are far beyond an English Herring,
when pickled.

The same as in England; they lie down a great way in the Sound,
towards the Ocean, where (at some certain Seasons) are a great many
very fine ones.

The fresh Water affords no such Bream as in England, that I have
as yet discover'd; yet there is a Sea-Bream, which is a flat and thin Fish,
as the European Breams are.

The Taylor is a Fish about the Bigness of a Trout, but of
a bluish and green Colour, with a forked Tail, as a Mackarel has.
They are a delicate Fish, and plentiful in our Salt-Waters.
Infinite numbers of other Species will be hereafter discover'd
as yet unknown to us; although I have seen and eaten of several other
sorts of Fish, which are not here mention'd, because, as yet,
they have no certain Names assign'd them.  Therefore, I shall treat no farther
of our Salt-Water Fish, but proceed to the Fresh.

{Fresh Water Sturgeon.}
The first of these is the Sturgeon, of which we have Plenty,
all the fresh Parts of our Rivers being well stor'd therewith.
The Indians upon and towards the Heads and Falls of our Rivers,
strike a great many of these, and eat them; yet the Indians
near the Salt-Waters will not eat them.  I have seen an Indian
strike one of these Fish, seven Foot long, and leave him on the Sands
to be eaten by the Gulls.  In May, they run up towards
the Heads of the Rivers, where you see several hundreds of them in one day.
The Indians have another way to take them, which is by Nets
at the end of a Pole.  The Bones of these Fish make good Nutmeg-Graters.

The Jack, Pike, or Pickerel, is exactly the same, in Carolina,
as they are in England.  Indeed, I never saw this Fish so big and large
in America, as I have in Europe, these with us being seldom
above two Foot long, as far as I have yet seen.  They are very plentiful
with us in Carolina, all our Creeks and Ponds being full of them.
I once took out of a Ware, above three hundred of these Fish, at a time.

The same in England as in Carolina; but ours are a great way up
the Rivers and Brooks, that are fresh, having swift Currents,
and stony, and gravelly Bottoms.

The same Gudgeons as in Europe are found in America.

{First Pearch.}
The same sort of Pearch as are in England, we have likewise in Carolina,
though, I think, ours never rise to be so large as in England.

{Second Pearch.}
We have a white Pearch, so call'd, because he is of a Silver Colour,
otherwise like the English Pearch.  These we have in great Plenty,
and they are preferable to the red ones.

{Third Pearch.}
The brown Pearch, which some call Welch-men, are the largest
sort of Pearches that we have, and very firm, white and sweet Fish.
These grow to be larger than any Carp, and are very frequent
in every Creek and Pond.

{Fourth flat.}
The flat or mottled Pearch are shaped almost like a Bream.
They are called Irish-men, being freckled or mottled with black,
and blue Spots.  They are never taken any where, but in the fresh Water.
They are good Fish; but I do not approve of them, no more
than of the other sorts of Pearch.

{Fifth Pearch, or Round Robin.}
We have another sort of Pearch, which is the least sort of all,
but as good Meat as any.  These are distinguish'd from the other sorts,
by the Name of Round-Robins; being flat, and very round-shap'd;
they are spotted with red Spots very beautiful, and are easily caught
with an Angle, as all the other sort of Pearches are.

We have the same Carp as you have in England.

And the same Roach; only scarce so large.

Dace are the same as yours too; but neither are these so large nor plentiful,
as with you.

The same as in England.

Sucking-Fish are the nearest in Taste and Shape to a Barbel,
only they have no Barbs.

Cat-Fish are a round blackish Fish, with a great flat Head, a wide Mouth,
and no Scales; they something resemble Eels in Taste.  Both this sort,
and another that frequents the Salt Water, are very plentiful.

Grindals are a long scaled Fish with small Eyes; and frequent Ponds, Lakes,
and slow-running Creeks and Swamps.  They are a soft sorry Fish,
and good for nothing; though some eat them for good Fish.

These are a bright scaly Fish, which frequent the Swamps, and fresh Runs;
they seem to be between an English Roach and a Bream, and eat much like
the latter.  The Indians kill abundance of these, and barbakue them,
till they are crisp, then transport them, in wooden Hurdles,
to their Towns and Quarters.

The Fountain-Fish are a white sort which breed in the clear Running Springs
and Fountains of Water, where the Clearness thereof makes them very difficult
to be taken.  I cannot say how good they are; because I have not as yet
tasted of them.

The white Fish are very large; some being two Foot and a half long and more.
They are found a great way up in the Freshes of the Rivers; and are firm Meat,
and an extraordinary well-relish'd Fish.

{Barbouts Millers Thumbs.}
Barbouts and Millers-Thumbs, are the very same here, in all respects,
as they are in England.  What more are in the fresh Waters
we have not discover'd, but are satisfied, that we are not acquainted
with one third part thereof; for we are told by the Indians,
of a great many strange and uncouth shapes and sorts of Fish,
which they have found in the Lakes laid down in my Chart.
However as we can give no farther Account of these than by Hear-say;
I proceed to treat of the Shell-Fish that are found in the Salt-Water,
so far as they have already come to our Knowledge.

{Large Crabs.}
The large Crabs, which we call Stone-Crabs, are the same sort
as in England, having black Tips at the end of their Claws.
These are plentifully met withal, down in Core Sound,
and the South Parts of North-Carolina.

{Small flat Crabs.}
The smaller flat Crabs I look upon to be the sweetest of all the Species.
They are the Breadth of a lusty Man's Hand, or rather larger.
These are innumerable, lying in most prodigious quantities,
all over the Salts of Carolina.  They are taken not only to eat,
but are the best Bait for all sorts of Fish, that live in the Salt-Water.
These Fish are mischievous to Night-Hooks, because they get away all the Bait
from the Hooks.

Oysters, great and small, are found almost in every Creek
and Gut of Salt-Water, and are very good and well-relish'd.
The large Oysters are excellent, pickled.

One Cockle in Carolina is as big as five or six in England.
They are often thrown upon the Sands on the Sound-Side, where the Gulls
are always ready to open and eat them.

Clams are a sort of Cockles, only differing in Shell,
which is thicker and not streak'd, or ribb'd.  These are found throughout
all the Sound and Salt-Water-Ponds.  The Meat is the same for Look and Taste
as the Cockle.  These make an excellent strong Broth, and eat well,
either roasted or pickled.

The Muscles in Carolina have a very large Shell, striped with Dents.
They grow by the side of Ponds and Creeks, in Salt-Water,
wherein you may get as many of them as you please.  I do not like them so well
as the English Muscle, which is no good Shell-Fish.

Some of the Shells of these are as large as a Man's Hand,
but the lesser sort are the best Meat, and those not extraordinary.
They are shap'd like the end of a Horses Yard.  Of their Shells,
the Peak or Wampum is made, which is the richest Commodity
amongst the Indians.  They breed like a long Thing shap'd like a Snake,
but containing a sort of Joints, in the Hollowness whereof
are thousands of small Coaks, no bigger then small Grains of Pepper.

The Skellops, if well dress'd, are a pretty Shell-Fish;
but to eat them only roasted, without any other Addition, in my Judgment,
are too luscious.

{Man of Noses.}
Man of Noses are a Shell-Fish commonly found amongst us.  They are valued
for increasing Vigour in Men, and making barren Women fruitful;
but I think they have no need of that Fish; for the Women in Carolina
are fruitful enough without their Helps.

Wilks, or Periwinkles, are not so large here, as in the Islands of Scilly,
and in other Parts of Europe, though very sweet.

The Sea-Snail-Horn is large, and very good Meat; they are exactly shaped
as other Snail-Horns are.

Fidlars are a sort of small Crabs, that lie in Holes in the Marshes.
The Raccoons eat them very much.  I never knew any one try,
whether they were good Meat or no.

Runners live chiefly on the Sands, but sometimes run into the Sea.
They have Holes in the Sand-Beaches and are a whitish sort of a Crab.
Tho' small, they run as fast as a Man, and are good for nothing
but to look at.

Spanish Oysters have a very thin Shell, and rough on the outside.
They are very good Shell-Fish, and so large, that half a dozen
are enow to satisfy an hungry Stomach.

The Flattings are inclosed in a broad, thin Shell, the whole Fish being flat.
They are inferiour to no Shell-Fish this Country affords.

Finger-Fish are very plentiful in this Country; they are
of the Length of a Man's Finger, and lie in the Bottom of the Water
about one or two Foot deep.  They are very good.

Shrimps are here very plentiful and good, and are to be taken
with a Small-Bow-Net, in great Quantities.

The small Cockles are about the Bigness of the largest English Cockles,
and differ nothing from them, unless in the Shells, which are striped
cross-wise as well as long-wise.

The Fresh-Water Shell-Fish are,

Muscles, which are eaten by the Indians, after five or six hours Boiling,
to make them tender, and then are good for nothing.

Craw-Fish, in the Brooks, and small Rivers of Water,
amongst the Tuskeruro Indians, and up higher, are found very plentifully,
and as good as any in the World.

And thus I have gone through the several Species of Fish,
so far as they have come to my Knowledge, in the eight Years
that I have lived in Carolina.  I should have made a larger Discovery,
when travelling so far towards the Mountains, and amongst the Hills,
had it not been in the Winter-Season, which was improper to make any Enquiry
into any of the Species before recited.  Therefore, as my Intent was,
I proceed to what remains of the Present State of Carolina, having already
accounted for the Animals, and Vegetables, as far as this Volume
would allow of; whereby the Remainder, though not exactly known,
may yet be guess'd at, if we consider what Latitude Carolina lies in,
which reaches from 29 to 36 deg. 30 min. Northern Latitude,
as I have before observ'd.  Which Latitude is as fertile and pleasant,
as any in the World, as well for the Produce of Minerals,
Fruit, Grain, and Wine, as other rich Commodities.  And indeed,
all the Experiments that have been made in Carolina,
of the Fertility and natural Advantages of the Country,
have exceeded all Expectation, as affording some Commodities,
which other Places, in the same Latitude, do not.  As for Minerals,
as they are subterraneous Products, so, in all new Countries,
they are the Species that are last discover'd; and especially,
in Carolina, where the Indians never look for any thing
lower than the Superficies of the Earth, being a Race of Men
the least addicted to delving of any People that inhabit so fine a Country
as Carolina is.  As good if not better Mines than those
the Spaniards possess in America, lie full West from us; and I am certain,
we have as Mountainous Land, and as great Probability of having rich Minerals
in Carolina, as any of those Parts that are already found
to be so rich therein.  But, waving this Subject, till some other Opportunity,
I shall now give you some Observations in general, concerning Carolina,
which are, first, that it lies as convenient for Trade
as any of the Plantations in America; that we have Plenty of Pitch, Tar,
Skins of Deer, and Beeves, Furs, Rice, Wheat, Rie, Indian Grain,
sundry sorts of Pulse, Turpentine, Rozin, Masts, Yards, Planks and Boards,
Staves and Lumber, Timber of many common sorts, fit for any Uses;
Hemp, Flax, Barley, Oats, Buck-Wheat, Beef, Pork, Tallow, Hides,
Whale-Bone and Oil, Wax, Cheese, Butter, &c. besides Drugs, Dyes,
Fruit, Silk, Cotton, Indico, Oil, and Wine that we need not doubt of,
as soon as we make a regular Essay, the Country being adorn'd
with pleasant Meadows, Rivers, Mountains, Valleys, Hills, and rich Pastures,
and blessed with wholesome pure Air; especially a little backwards
from the Sea, where the wild Beasts inhabit, none of which are voracious.
The Men are active, the Women fruitful to Admiration, every House
being full of Children, and several Women that have come hither barren,
having presently prov'd fruitful.  There cannot be a richer Soil;
no Place abounding more in Flesh and Fowl, both wild and tame,
besides Fish, Fruit, Grain, Cider, and many other pleasant Liquors;
together with several other Necessaries for Life and Trade,
that are daily found out, as new Discoveries are made.  The Stone and Gout
seldom trouble us; the Consumption we are wholly Strangers to,
no Place affording a better Remedy for that Distemper,
than Carolina.  For Trade, we lie so near to Virginia,
that we have the Advantage of their Convoys; as also Letters from thence,
in two or three Days at most, in some Places in as few Hours.
Add to this, that the great Number of Ships which come within those Capes,
for Virginia and Maryland, take off our Provisions,
and give us Bills of Exchange for England, which is Sterling Money.
The Planters in Virginia and Maryland are forc'd to do the same,
the great Quantities of Tobacco that are planted there,
making Provisions scarce; and Tobacco is a Commodity oftentimes so low,
as to bring nothing, whereas Provisions and Naval Stores
never fail of a Market.  Besides, where these are raised,
in such Plenty as in Carolina, there always appears good Housekeeping,
and Plenty of all manner of delicate Eatables.  For Instance,
the Pork of Carolina is very good, the younger Hogs fed on Peaches, Maiz,
and such other natural Produce; being some of the sweetest Meat
that the World affords, as is acknowledged by all Strangers
that have been there.  And as for the Beef, in Pampticough,
and the Southward Parts, it proves extraordinary.  We have not only
Provisions plentiful, but Cloaths of our own Manufactures, which are made,
and daily increase; Cotton, Wool, Hemp, and Flax, being of our own Growth;
and the Women to be highly commended for their Industry in Spinning,
and ordering their Houswifry to so great Advantage as they generally do;
which is much more easy, by reason this happy Climate,
visited with so mild Winters, is much warmer than the Northern Plantations,
which saves abundance of Cloaths; fewer serving our Necessities,
and those of our Servants.  But this is not all; for we can go out
with our Commodities, to any other Part of the West-Indies,
or elsewhere, in the Depth of Winter; whereas, those in New-England,
New-York, Pensylvania, and the Colonies to the Northward of us,
cannot stir for Ice, but are fast lock'd into their Harbours.
Besides, we can trade with South-Carolina, and pay no Duties or Customs,
no more than their own Vessels, both North and South being under
the same Lords-Proprietors.  We have, as I observ'd before,
another great Advantage, in not being a Frontier, and so continually alarm'd
by the Enemy; and what has been accounted a Detriment to us,
proves one of the greatest Advantages any People could wish; which is,
our Country's being faced with a Sound near ten Leagues over in some Places,
through which, although there be Water enough for as large Ships
to come in at, as in any part hitherto seated in both Carolinas;
yet the Difficulty of that Sound to Strangers, hinders them from attempting
any Hostilities against us; and, at the same time, if we consider
the Advantages thereof, nothing can appear to be a better Situation,
than to be fronted with such a Bulwark, which secures us from our Enemies.
Furthermore, our Distance from the Sea rids us of two Curses,
which attend most other Parts of America, viz. Muskeetos,
and the Worm-biting, which eats Ships Bottoms out; whereas at Bath-Town,
there is no such thing known; and as for Muskeetos, they hinder us
of as little Rest, as they do you in England.  Add to this,
the unaccountable Quantities of Fish this great Water, or Sound,
supplies us withal, whenever we take the Pains to fish for them;
Advantages I have no where met withal in America, except here.
As for the Climate, we enjoy a very wholsome and serene Sky,
and a pure and thin Air, the Sun seldom missing to give us his daily Blessing,
unless now and then on a Winters Day, which is not often; and when cloudy,
the first Appearance of a North-West Wind clears the Horizon,
and restores the Light of the Sun.  The Weather, in Summer, is very pleasant;
the hotter Months being refresh'd with continual Breezes of cool reviving Air;
and the Spring being as pleasant, and beautiful, as in any Place
I ever was in.  The Winter, most commonly, is so mild,
that it looks like an Autumn, being now and then attended
with clear and thin North-West Winds, that are sharp enough to regulate
English Constitutions, and free them from a great many dangerous Distempers,
that a continual Summer afflicts them withal, nothing being wanting,
as to the natural Ornaments and Blessings of a Country,
that conduce to make reasonable Men happy.  And, for those that are otherwise,
they are so much their own Enemies, where they are, that they will scarce ever
be any ones Friends, or their own, when they are transplanted;
so, it's much better for all sides, that they remain as they are.
Not but that there are several good People, that, upon just Grounds,
may be uneasy under their present Burdens; and such I would advise
to remove to the Place I have been treating of, where they may enjoy
their Liberty and Religion, and peaceably eat the Fruits of their Labour,
and drink the Wine of their own Vineyards, without the Alarms
of a troublesome worldly Life.  If a Man be a Botanist,
here is a plentiful Field of Plants to divert him in; If he be a Gardner,
and delight in that pleasant and happy Life, he will meet with
a Climate and Soil, that will further and promote his Designs,
in as great a Measure, as any Man can wish for; and as for
the Constitution of this Government, it is so mild and easy,
in respect to the Properties and Liberties of a Subject,
that without rehearsing the Particulars, I say once for all,
it is the mildest and best establish'd Government in the World,
and the Place where any Man may peaceably enjoy his own,
without being invaded by another; Rank and Superiority ever giving Place
to Justice and Equity, which is the Golden Rule that every Government
ought to be built upon, and regulated by.  Besides, it is worthy our Notice,
that this Province has been settled, and continued the most free
from the Insults and Barbarities of the Indians, of any Colony
that was ever yet seated in America; which must be esteem'd
as a particular Providence of God handed down from Heaven, to these People;
especially, when we consider, how irregularly they settled North-Carolina,
and yet how undisturb'd they have ever remain'd, free from any foreign
Danger or Loss, even to this very Day.  And what may well be look'd upon
for as great a Miracle, this is a Place, where no Malefactors are found,
deserving Death, or even a Prison for Debtors; there being no more
than two Persons, that, as far as I have been able to learn,
ever suffer'd as Criminals, although it has been a Settlement
near sixty Years; One of whom was a Turk that committed Murder;
the other, an old Woman, for Witchcraft.  These, 'tis true,
were on the Stage, and acted many Years, before I knew the Place;
but as for the last, I wish it had been undone to this day;
although they give a great many Arguments, to justifie the Deed,
which I had rather they should have a Hand in, than myself;
seeing I could never approve of taking Life away upon such Accusations,
the Justice whereof I could never yet understand.

But, to return to the Subject in Hand; we there make extraordinary good Bricks
throughout the Settlement.  All sorts of Handicrafts, as Carpenters, Joiners,
Masons, Plaisterers, Shooemakers, Tanners, Taylors, Weavers, and most others,
may, with small Beginnings, and God's Blessing, thrive very well
in this Place, and provide Estates for their Children, Land being sold
at a much cheaper Rate there, than in any other Place in America, and may,
as I suppose, be purchased of the Lords-Proprietors here in England,
or of the Governour there for the time being, by any that shall have a mind
to transport themselves to that Country.  The Farmers that go thither
(for which sort of Men it is a very thriving Place) should take with them
some particular Seeds of Grass, as Trefoil, Clover-grass all sorts,
Sanfoin, and Common Grass, or that which is a Rarity in Europe; especially,
what has sprung and rose first from a warm Climate, and will endure the Sun
without flinching.  Likewise, if there be any extraordinary sort of Grain
for Increase or Hardiness, and some Fruit-Trees of choice Kinds,
they will be both profitable and pleasant to have with you,
where you may see the Fruits of your Labour in Perfection,
in a few Years.  The necessary Instruments of Husbandry
I need not acquaint the Husbandman withal; Hoes of all sorts,
and Axes must be had, with Saws, Wedges, Augurs, Nails, Hammers,
and what other Things may be necessary for building with Brick,
or Stone, which sort your Inclination and Conveniency lead you to.
For, after having look'd over this Treatise, you must needs be acquainted
with the Nature of the Country, and therefore cannot but be Judges, what it is
that you will chiefly want.  As for Land, none need want it for taking up,
even in the Places there seated on the Navigable Creeks, Rivers, and Harbours,
without being driven into remoter Holes and Corners of the Country,
for Settlements, which all are forced to do, who, at this day,
settle in most or all of the other English Plantations in America;
which are already become so populous, that a New-Comer cannot get
a beneficial and commodious Seat, unless he purchases, when,
in most Places in Virginia and Maryland, a thousand Acres of good Land,
seated on a Navigable Water, will cost a thousand Pounds; whereas, with us,
it is at present obtain'd for the fiftieth Part of the Money.
Besides, our Land pays to the Lords, but an easy Quit-Rent,
or yearly Acknowledgement; and the other Settlements pay
two Shillings per hundred.  All these things duly weighed,
any rational Man that has a mind to purchase Land in the Plantations
for a Settlement of himself and Family, will soon discover
the Advantages that attend the Settlers and Purchasers of Land in Carolina,
above all other Colonies in the English Dominions in America.
And as there is a free Exercise of all Persuasions amongst Christians,
the Lords-Proprietors, to encourage Ministers of the Church of England,
have given free Land towards the Maintenance of a Church, and especially,
for the Parish of S. Thomas in Pampticough, over-against the Town,
is already laid out for a Glebe of two hundred and twenty three Acres
of rich well-situated Land, that a Parsonage-House may be built upon.
And now I shall proceed to give an Account of the Indians,
their Customs and Ways of Living, with a short Dictionary of their Speech.

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