Facing the Yanks at Grant's Creek

The people of Salisbury awoke at first light on April 12, 1865.  The distant sounds of exploding artillery shells announced that Stoneman's dreaded raiders had, at last, reached their doorstep.  The Yadkin House [Mansion House] hotel shook with every volley, and the glass window panes shattered.1   This day, and part of the next, would be the most terrifying they would ever know.  As Margaret Beall Ramsey later recalled, "Truly 'the despot's heel was at the door.'"2

For months, Salisbury had braced for the invasion of Union troops.  William T. Sherman was marching through the eastern part of North Carolina.  Time would tell that Joseph E. Johnston would surrender at Bennet Place on April 26th, and that Sherman would not reach the Piedmont.  Stoneman would.

Major General George Stoneman, an imposing figure, commanded the Union army's "District of East Tennessee".  At the head of a cavalry force numbering 5,000 to 6,000, he left the Knoxville, Tennessee area on March 21, 1865, headed for western North Carolina and southwestern Virginia.  His objective was to destroy Confederate supplies and supply lines - the East Tennessee & Virginia Railroad, the North Carolina Railroad, and the Danville-Greensboro line.3

From the beginning, Stoneman had Salisbury, the fifth largest city in North Carolina4, in his sights.  The overcrowded, death-ridden Confederate Prison here was infamous, and Stoneman saw himself as the hapless prisoners' liberator.  The Confederate arsenal and store houses were irresistible targets.  And the Federals had waited a long time to destroy the vital railroad bridge over the Yadkin River.5

Stoneman had edged closer and closer as his forces raided Boone and Wilkesboro.  From there, they headed north toward Virginia.  This unexpected move precipitated a change in the defenses of the North Carolina Confederates.  Troops which had been sent to defend Salisbury were moved out to cover Greensboro and Danville.  General P.G.T. Beauregard, Johnston's commander in western North Carolina, was so confused by Stoneman's maneuvers that he thought the latter two cities to be targets up until the time Stoneman entered Salisbury.  On that very day, Beauregard ordered 1000 soldiers to Salisbury, but they would arrive too late.6

"On April 9 - the day of General Lee's surrender at Appomattox Court House - the bulk of Stoneman's command reunited in North Carolina."7  Out of touch owing to the destroyed telegraph lines, from Germantown, north of present Winston-Salem, he detached Palmer's brigade east of the Yadkin to destroy stores and railroad lines in Salem and around High Point and Lexington.  Stoneman, with the main force of about 4000, crossed the Yadkin at the Shallow Ford and moved down the west side of the Yadkin through Mocksville.  The night of April 11th found them twelve miles north of Salisbury, unstoppable in their southward march.8

By first light (5:30 am),9 Stoneman, with Miller's and Brown's brigades and the artillery, found themselves opposed by a rag-tag assemblage of Confederates at Grant's Creek, about 2 and 1/2 miles north of Salisbury.  While Stoneman estimated the Confederate force at 3,000,10 local accounts place no more than 500 there, including 200 "galvanized" Irish recruited from the Federal prisoners, invalid soldiers gathered from the hospitals, junior reserves, local citizens, and even a few non-military Confederate government employees.11  Barrett estimated their number at between five and eight hundred.12  Brigadier General Bradley T. Johnson, Salisbury's commander, had been called to Greensboro, and command fell to Brig. Gen. William M. Gardner and John C. Pemberton, defender of Vicksburg.  They did have the terrain, some breastworks, and 18 artillery pieces to their advantage.13

The Blue and Gray faced each other at the old (Old Mocksville Road) and new (West Innes Street) Mocksville road crossings of Grant's Creek, and at the Statesville Road crossing,14 where Confederates had removed the planking of the bridges.  As artillery and rifle fire filled the air, in the distance could be heard trains heading west and south from Salisbury.  The Confederates were evacuating their supplies!15

Not to be denied another escaping train, Stoneman ordered troops 2 1/2 miles up Grant's Creek.16  This distance, measured from the Old Mocksville Road, would take them to the railroad bridge over the creek and the Old Plank Road beyond.  Here they stopped another fleeing train, finding the sword, uniform, papers and family of slain Confederate Lt. Gen. Leonidas Polk.17  Meanwhile, other Yankee detachments crossed Grant's Creek farther downstream.18  Outflanked on both sides, two hours19 after the first shots at Grant's Creek were fired, the Confederates were routed, and a running battle moved toward and into the streets of Salisbury.20  Given their positions at the creek and contemporary accounts, Stoneman's raiders, four deep, entered down three roads:  the Old Mocksville Road and Shober's Bridge on Henderson [North Ellis] Street, West Innes Street, and the Old Plank Road.21  It must have seemed to the residents of Salisbury that the Yanks were coming from all directions!  

The Seizure of Salisbury

Margaret Beall Ramsey, a young widow, like many other Salisbury women whose husbands were away or dead, was alone with her three children and a few servants.  Looking out her second story window, she described "missles ... flying thick and fast around and upon the house. ... Thousands of cavalrymen were in hot pursuit of our Confederate soldiers, through yards, gardens and fields on to the Town creek [south of Salisbury]."22

Harriet Ellis Bradshaw echoed, "The roadway was jammed with a surging mass of mounted soldiers and rampant horses spurred to a breakneck speed to overtake General Beauregard's withdrawing troops.  It was frightening, curiously thrilling, to see the capless cavalrymen standing erect in their stirrips as they rode, brandishing bared sabres in hand as they let out earsplitting yells."23

As Stoneman's Raiders reached the center of town, "The Mayor of the town stood on the corner of the street in front of the hotel, holding the flag of truce in his hand, up high over his head.  Along came one of the Yanks, waving his sword and cut down the flag, howling and swearing at the top of his voice."24

Capt. Frank Y. MacNeely, who had returned to Salisbury, was shot and killed.  Lt. Stokes of Maryland shot Capt. Edwards25 one of the Union officers who charged him.  He fled, pursued by Union soldiers.  Reining in his horse suddenly, one of them passed him, only to be the second to die by the Lieutenant's gun.  Stokes then made good his escape.26

Civilians fled with their belongings and flooded the road south toward Gold Hill.  "In a short time, [the road] was strewn with harness, bags, and other things."27  Years later, J. J. Bruner, the editor of the Carolina Watchman, admitted that he "'lit out' that morning, after the town was given up, and only saw things from a hill top on the south side of town creek.'"28   The Carolina Watchman presses were destroyed by the Raiders, and the paper did not resume publication until the following January.29

Beyond Town Creek, the Confederates lost their pursuers and vanished into the woods.  From there, they made their way to join York's forces above the Yadkin.  Bradshaw related, "The rebel troops quitted Salisbury, fell back to a new position to defend a railroad bridge spanning the Yadkin River."30

As the last of the Confederate soldiers disappeared, the federals pitched camp on "Murphy's Woods", later called "Herrington Heights", across Town Creek from Salisbury.  They built a large officers' quarters of pine poles chinked with mud, as well as bake ovens.31

Having driven all Confederate defenders from Salisbury, Stoneman began the work of occupation.  Miller's brigade was sent to destroy the railroad bridge over the Yadkin River, six miles east of town.32  It fell to Simeon Brown's brigade to destroy everything in Salisbury that supported the Confederate cause.

Foremost to Stoneman was the liberation of the prisoners at the Salisbury Prison.  Unknown to him, all but those too sick to travel had been shipped out to Wilmington and Richmond in February, and the prison itself had become a storehouse.33  All that remained was for the Raiders to burn the buildings.  "No one was sorry when the Yankees made a bonfire of the evil-smelling empty, dolorous prison, the scene of so much unalleviated suffering and so many deaths.  This chapter could only be appropriately closed in a purification by fire."34

Before they would leave, the Raiders would burn the prison, barracks, hospitals and surrounding buildings used by the Confederate government; the arsenal, steam distillery,  and buildings used by the Central and Western Railroads - office, passenger shed, car shed, 2 freight depots, large machine shop, several steam and locomotive engines.  An expensive private tannery was also burned.35  A fire was put out before it destroyed the Rowan county courthouse and all its records.36

Stoneman's second-in command, Brig. Gen. Alvan C. Gillem, recorded "from the preceding afternoon up to [2:00 p.m. on the 13th], the air had been constantly rent by the reports of exploding shells and burning magazines.  For miles around the locality of the city was marked during the day by a column of dense smoke, and at night by the glare from burning stores."37

"The great conflagration was seen at a distance of 15 miles, and explosions of shells and kegs of powder conveyed the impression to many anxious watchers many miles away that fierce battle was waging."38  Indeed, the fire and explosions were reported 25 miles away in Statesville.39   A. M. Rice of Unity Township recalled his mother waking the children.  "Look out the window, the Yankees are burning Salisbury."40

Throughout the day, Union soldiers and camp followers went from house to house, searching through every room, closet, and drawer.  Amidst threats, they took food and liquor.  They demanded silverware and pocketwatches, but found few valuables, which had been hidden away.41  Dr. Summerell's wife had buried her silver spoons in old shoes underneath a row of grapevine cuttings.  The doctor had taken his pocketwatch, in the toe of a sock, to one of his patients at the County poorhouse.  She had sewn it inside her skirt.  Horses were taken to the woods behind Macay's millpond.42  Mrs. Francis E. Shober, of North Fulton Street, according to the family Bible, had given birth to a baby boy "Born on the fateful day of Stoneman's visit."  Within the folds of the baby's diaper she had hidden her most valuable possession, a diamond ring.    The family silver had been buried among the ties of the nearby railroad tracks.43  Decades later, county records were found concealed in the walls of the courthouse.  Many of Salisbury's citizens asked General Stoneman for protection, which he granted when he could.  The home where Harriett Ellis Bradshaw was a child of eight, ransacked earlier in the day, had been given a guard.  When the guard left, he carried with him a Confederate flag "which had been hauled down from the entrance of the Yankee prison.  Fastened to a short pole set up against the ouside frame of our front door, the flag had rippled its rebel folds all the day long."44  In 1962, this flag found its way back to North Carolina.45

Palmer's troops, from east of the Yadkin, arrived in the afternoon.  They were sent out again to destroy the railroad to Charlotte.46

Dr. Rumple, Mr. Wiley and his school, James E. Kerr, "together with a long list of our best citizens"  were captured and imprisoned for the day.47

"No one thought of sleeping that night.  ...  We were made to start and tremble every moment at the terrific and unbearable explosions of shells at the arsenal, which continued for 36 hours at least."48

By the next morning, immense amounts of military and civilian supplies had been hauled out of every warehouse in Salisbury and piled onto Innes and Main Streets.  In these last days of the war, Salisbury had become the "Storehouse of the Confederacy."  Supplies had been concentrated here "from Columbia and Charlotte, Richmond and Danville.  ...  Besides these, Governor Vance had deposited a large amount of state property here."49  They filled four blocks, and were soon set afire, where they surely smoldered for days.  Poor people, both white and black, carried away what they could.50

Miller's brigade, unable to capture or destroy the Yadkin bridge, returned to town in the morning.51

As their final act, about 2:00 in the afternoon of the 13th, the Raiders exploded the magazine and rode out of Salisbury.52

When Stoneman left, Salisburians considered themselves fortunate, in comparison to Columbia and Fayetteville, that the town had not been completely destroyed.  Margaret Beall Ramsey's closing comment was that "Salisbury ... may well afford to hold Stoneman's name in grateful remembrance."53  

The Battle at the Yadkin Bridge

                         Toward Salisbury, N. C., February 24, 1864, Robert Knox Sneden

Six miles east of Salisbury, the railroad bridge over the Yadkin River was vital  to rail transportation for the Confederacy, and was a strategic target for the Union.  Perhaps as early as 186354, construction of earthen fortifications to guard it had begun.  These fortifications, on a high bluff on the north side of the river covered the entire hill, now bisected by modern highways.  They protected the railroad bridge and Locke's (Beard's) bridge, as well as roads east.  The high bluff provided both military superiority and a commanding view.  Certainly, the fortifications were extended in anticipation of Stoneman's arrival.

In the summer of 1864, Capt. George W. Kirk led a band of raiders from Morristown, Tennessee into western North Carolina.  "He did not accomplish the principal object of the expedition - that is, the destruction of the railroad bridge over the Yadkin River; but made arrangements to do this secretly, it being impossible for him to do it by force."55

These secret arrangements may have been with a band of deserters and Union sympathizers in Yadkin county.  On February 12, 1865, Bradley T. Johnson in Salisbury reported:  "It is said that a large number of deserters are collecting in Yadkin [county] for an attack here.  A few cavalry will disperse them." 56

A report by Brig. Gen. Davis Tillson, April 9, 1865, noted the importance of destroying the Yadkin bridge:  "At Boone information was received that General Stoneman was at or near Wilkesborough, N. C., on the 30th ultimo, moving down the Yadkin River, with the supposed intention of destroying the important railroad bridge over the Yadkin River."  Tillson noted that if Stoneman were unable to accomplish this, his own forces would do so.57

Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard had prepared for Stoneman's approach.  On March 31, 1865, he ordered:  "Be careful enemy do not destroy railroad bridge across the Yadkin.  Protect it with field-works.  One or two batteries have been ordered to you."58  On April 3rd he added:  "Light battery at Yadkin bridge must be placed on south side of river should proper positions be found."59  This order was re-iterated, too late, on April 12th:  "Yadkin bridge should be well guarded on both sides, especially on south side now."60  On April 6th, Beauregard advised "the immediate construction of tetes-de-point at railroad bridge on Yadkin and Catawba; also at nearest fords to each said bridge."61

The fortifications were said to have been laid out "by a Lieut. Beauregard, a nephew of the late general."62  Originally known as Camp Yadkin,63 over the years they have been called Fort Beauregard,64 Fort York, and York Hill.

"General [Zebulon] York of Louisiana, with ten or twelve hundred men - Home Guards and 'Galvanized' Irish - defended the bridge."65  "York was getting well up in years, and having lost an arm he was known by the sonbriquet [sic] of 'One Wing York.'"66  C.D. Simmerson's eye-witness account numbers the Confederate troops at 10,000,67 but Beall's estimate is probably more accurate.  According to Simmerson, Captain Frank Smith, of Alabama, and Capt. Henry Clement commanded Confederate troops at the fort.68  "Two of the biggest Confederate cannons had been placed to control the approaches to the railroad bridge, Mr. Simmerson said, and these big guns mowed down trees on the Rowan side of the river...."69

If Stoneman had any hopes of a surrender at the Yadkin, they were dashed when "York sent him word that he would hold the works against 10,000 Yankees."70

Col. John K. Miller's brigade arrived at the river about 2:00.71  Miller's brigade was made up of the 8th Tennessee and 13th Tennessee,72 and numbered 1,000 men.73  A Union officer approached the bridge on horseback to survey the situation.  "The officer was promptly shot off his horse."74  "At the first advance, so the older inhabitants say, sixteen of the blue coats were killed or mortally wounded."75

Miller sent back to Salisbury for the artillery, which arrived about 3:00.76  Stoneman's artillery battery carried with them four Parrott guns (Peter Cooper, Professor of Anthropology at Catawba College has found a fragment of Parrott shells at this site), and possibly a few other pieces.77  "18 pieces of artillery with caissons, forges, and battery wagons complete"78 had been captured earlier in the day at Grant's Creek.  Both Confederate and Union forces had access to the ammunition at the Salisbury armory.  The stage was set for an all-out artillery assault - the Union blue on the south (Rowan) side of the river, the Confederate gray on the north (Davidson).

Margaret Beall Ramsey recorded, "A strong force concentrated to attack this railroad bridge.  Heavy cannonading at the river bridge continued until dark [7:30].79  The raiders, thinking the bridge too strongly fortified returned to Salisbury, destroying the railroad as they went.  A few Confederates were wounded, and one or two killed."80

The Confederates "had their well-placed cannon, shooting solid shot of great dimension, backed by withering rifle barrage from their impregnable fortress, so that Stoneman's men gave up their assault as a bad job and turned back ...."81

One Tennessean who was there called it "a sharp fight which compelled them to retire."82

The following morning, "Stoneman's pursuing cavalry was coming back to Salisbury after a battle lost.  But no wild cheers, no war whoops of victory marked their return to the town.  General Beauregard's defenders had saved the Yadkin River railroad bridge."83

Brenizer wrote that it was "a remarkable thing to relate that 'THEY DID NOT BURN THE BRIDGE!''"84

Several days later, Robert Herriot, of Bachman's (German) Battery, described the battle's aftermath:  "... In proceeding South we crossed the Yadkin River on the railroad bridge, which was planked.  The river is deep and narrow, with high banks at the bridge, and here was done most of the fighting when Stoneman was repulsed.  There was much debris lying around - broken caisons and limbers, dismounted field pieces[.]  I noticed one piece that had been struck on the edge of the mouth and dismounted."85

The two forces were fairly evenly matched in number and firepower.  But the Confederates held the advantage of position and fortification.  The earthworks of Camp Yadkin stood the test, and provided the Confederates with their last victory in North Carolina.  

In the Days Following

With the Confederacy collapsing around him, President Jefferson Davis, his Cabinet, and the Treasury fled south - to Greensboro, Lexington, Salisbury, Concord, Charlotte, and on to South Carolina and Georgia.  On Easter Sunday, April 17, 1865, Davis reached the Yadkin River.  The ferryman had left, and Henry Mills, of Stanly County, was the only man at Camp Yadkin who could manage a flat.  He recalled that "the ferry was 150 yards from the railroad bridge."  (This distance could refer to either the Yadkin Ford ferry below the railroad bridge or the Confederate ferry above it.)  Mills recalled ferrying 500 horsemen and an ambulance carrying a red-haired woman with three children, whom he mistook for Davis' family.  "The President was the last one to go over.  He asked me to be careful and not touch his horse with the pole.  He did not speak to me as an inferior, but very kindly as to a friend.  Oh, how we boys did love him.  When we got safely over the river, he thanked me and gave me a silver dollar which I have always kept."86  This scene was captured by an artist for the Illustrated London News.87

President Davis soon reached Salisbury, where the remains of Stoneman's fiery devastation still smoldered.  No one offered an invitation for the distinguished guest, until he was taken in by Thomas G. Haughton, rector of St. Luke's Episcopal Church.88  On the 18th, he sent a telegram from Salisbury arguing against disbanding "the battalion of Virginians now at Camp Yadkin."89  Evidently at least some of York's forces were disbanded, for Henry Mills recalled Company I, supporting forces of men over 45 from Anson, Stanley, Montgomery, Moore, Chatham, Randolph, and Davidson counties, being disbanded that day.90  When the Confederate forces in North Carolina finally capitulated several weeks later, the 40th Alabama Infantry, consolidated with the 19th and 46th, was surrendered at the Yadkin River bridge.91

Although word didn't reach the south immediately, the day following Stoneman's departure from Salisbury was the momentous day of Abraham Lincoln's assasination at Ford's Theater.  The entire nation, north and south, soon reverberated with shock.

As the war finally ended, Salisbury was occupied by U.S. Troops.  Beaten, devastated, and impoverished, the south began the long, slow process of recovery.  The stories of what happened at Grant's Creek, Salisbury, and Camp Yadkin were nearly forgotten under the dust of the past.


The author gratefully acknowledges Wayne Boone, Chris Hartley, and Steve Walters for their painstaking research and assistance!

2003, Ann Brownlee  


1 Wood
2 Ramsey
3 Van Noppen; Hartley, 1990 and 1998; Boone
4 Brawley, 1/8/1964
6 Hartley, 1998; United States, War Department (hereinafter referred to as OR), 1-47-III p. 791
7 Hartley, 1998
8 Van Noppen; Hartley, 1990 and 1998; Boone
9 First light on April 12, 1865 occurred about 5:30 a.m.  U. S. Naval Observatory
10 Brig. Gen. Alvan Gillem reported the Confederate forces at 3,000, with 18 pieces of artillery.  He reported capturing 18 pieces of artillery with caissons, forges, and battery wagons complete, 17 stand of colors, and between 1,200 and 1,300 prisoners.  OR 1-49-I p. 324
11 Beall; Hartley, 1998; Stewart
12 Barrett
13 see Gillem's report OR, 1-49-I pp. 333-334
14 Bruner,  4/9/1889
15 OR, 1-49-I p. 333
16 OR 1-49-I p. 333
17 Hartley, 1998
18 100 men of the 11th Kentucky under Lt. Col. Slater were sent up the creek.  Major Donnelly, 13th Tennessee Cavalry with about 100 men was sent below the Old Mocksville Road, and Lt. Col. Smith, with a party of dismounted men, were sent still farther down Grant's Creek.  OR, 1-49-I p. 333
19 7:30 according to Bruner 4/9/1889; 8:00 acording to Beall
20 OR, 1-49-I p. 333
21 OR 1-49-I pp. 333-334; Spencer
22 Ramsey
23 Bradshaw
24 Wood
25 Old North State 8/11/1871
26 Ramsey
27 Bruner, 4/9/1889
28 Bruner, 4/13/1882
29 Brawley 5/9/1965
30 Bradshaw
31 Dunn
32 OR 1-49-I p. 334
33 Brown
34 Chamberlain
35 Beall
36 Van Poole
37 Gillem reported destroying the following stores:
                10,000 stands of arms
           1,000,000 rounds of ammunition (small)
                10,000 rounds of ammunition (artillery)
                  6,000 pounds of powder
                         3 magazines
                        6 depots
               10,000 bushels corn
               75,000 suits of uniform clothing
             250,000 blankets (English manufacture)
               20,000 pounds of leather
                 6,000 pounds of bacon
             100,000 pounds of salt
               20,000 pounds of sugar
               27,000 pounds of rice
               10,000 pounds of saltpeter
               50,000 bushels of wheat
                     80 barrels turpentine
     $15,000,000 Confederate money
                          medical stores, valued at over $100,000 in gold,
OR, 1-49-I p. 334
38 Ramsey
39 Brown, p. 174
40 Brawley 6/13/68
41 Bradshaw
42 Chamberlain
43 Brawley 2/15/70
44 Bradshaw
45 Bradshaw
46 OR 1-49-I p. 333
47 Bruner 4/13/1882; Ramsey
48 Ramsey
49 Beall
50 Bradshaw; Beall; Dunn
51 Bradshaw
52 Beall
53 Ramsey
54 Boone
55 OR, 1-39-I, pp. 233-234
56 OR, II-8, p. 212
57 OR, 1-49-I p. 338; OR, 1-49-II p. 331
58 OR, 1-47-III p. 729
59 OR, 1-47-III p. 746
60 OR, 1-47-III p. 791
61 OR, 1-47-III, p. 761
62 Bruner 2/27/1890
63 OR, 1-47-III p. 810
64 Bruner 2/27/1890
65 Beall
66 Bruner 2/27/1890
67 Gwin
68 Gwin
69 Gwin
70 Bruner 2/27/1890
71 Beall
72 OR, 1-47-I p. 325; Boone
73 Boone
74 Gwin
75 Bruner 2/17/1890
76 Beall
77  Brown, p. 175; Boone; OR 1-47-III pp. 740, 747, 752, 756, 757 
78 OR, 1-49-I p. 334
79 Ramsey; Dark on April 12, 1865 occurred about 7:30 p.m.  U. S. Naval Observatory
80 Ramsey
81 Gwin
82 Barchfield
83 Bradshaw
84 Brown p. 175, Brenizer
85 Herriot
86 Brawley 3/4/2979
87 Illustrated London News
88 Brawley 3/25/1973
89 OR, 1-47-III, p. 810
90 Brawley 3/4/1979
91 Confederate Military History, vol. VIII, p. 180  


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Barchfield's Memoranda.  Arnell Collection, University of Tennessee.

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Boone, Wayne,  "General Stoneman."  website published at, 1999.

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Chamberlain, Hope Summerell,  This Was Home.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1938.

Cherry, Kevin,  "Map of Salisbury Drawn During Battle."  Salisbury Post.  May 23, 1959.

Currey, Mary Eliza,  "The Siege of Salisbury: Girl's Diary Details Invasion of Union Troops 119 Years Ago."  Salisbury Post.  April 12, 1984.

Davis, Chester S,  "Stoneman's Raid Into Northwest North Carolina." Journal - Sentinel, Winston-Salem, NC.  October 4, 1953.

Dunn, J. Allan,  "Stoneman's Raid was 69 Years Ago Today and Salisbury Citizen Recalls Incidents about Ravaging of City." (J. I. Shaver account) Salisbury Post.  April 12, 1934.

Gwin, Harry,  "Few Know that Stoneman's Raiders Were Turned Back at Yadkin River." (C. D. Simmerson, Essie Meares and Mrs. J. T. Yarborough accounts)  Salisbury Post.  September 2, 1951.

Hartley, Chris J.,  "Like an Avalanche: George Stoneman's 1865 Cavalry Raid."  Civil War Regiments.  Volume 6, No. 1 (1998).

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Herriot, Robert, Confederate Veteran, Volume 30, p. 102.  (quoted by Wayne Boone, "General Stoneman")

"Mr. Jefferson Davis and his party retreating across the Pee-Dee River, North Carolina, at the fall of the Southern Confederacy, 1865."  Illustrated London News.  December 14, 1889.  From the North Carolina Collection, University of NC Library at Chapel Hill, accessed online:

Old North State, The.  August 11, 1871.

Ramsey, Bargaret Beall,  "Reminiscences of Harrowing Days in Salisbury." Salisbury Post.  September 25, 1932.

Raynor, George,  Rebels and Yankees in Rowan County.  Salisbury, NC, 1991.

Salisbury Post.  "Today 88th Anniversary of Stoneman's Raid on City."  April 12, 1953.

Shiman, Philip,  "Fort York: A Late War Confederate Fort on the Yadkin River."  c. 1988.

Sneden, Private Robert Knox, Eye of the Storm, A Civil War Odyssey, Charles F. Bryan, Jr. and Nelson D. Lankford, Eds.  New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000 Virginia Historical Society (online at

Shober, May Wheat,  Personal account reprinted by James Brawley.  "Yankee Prisoners Freed with a Vengeance."  Salisbury Post.  November 14, 1976.

Sneden, Robert Knox, et alEye of the Storm.  New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000.

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Stewart, J. J., editor of the Daily Banner,  Reprinted by James Brawley.  "April 1865, Recalls City's Saddest Days."  Salisbury Post.  April 29, 1973.

U. S. Naval Observatory, "Sun and Moon for One Day", accessed online

United States, War Department, Record and Pension Office, War Records Office, et al,  The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies.  Washington: Government Printing Office, 1895-1897.

Van Noppen, Ina Woestemeyer,  Stoneman's Last Raid.  Raleigh: NC State College Print Shop, 1961.

Van Poole, Dr. C. M.,  "Why Rowan Courthouse Escaped Burning When Stoneman Raided Salisbury in 1865 Recalled."  Salisbury Post.  December 18, 1932.

Wood, William Nicol, as told to his granddaughter Mary E. Gandy,  "Salisbury Recollections."  1964.  

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